地理科学进展 ›› 2013, Vol. 32 ›› Issue (2): 308-317.doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2013.02.017

• 环境与生态 • 上一篇    

林地景观点格局的样带梯度分布与空间聚集特征——以重庆三峡库区生态屏障区为例

王金亮1,2, 黄志霖1, 邵景安2,3, 李阳兵2   

  1. 1. 中国林业科学研究院森林生态环境与保护研究所/国家林业局森林生态环境重点实验室, 北京100091;
    2. 重庆师范大学地理与旅游学院, 重庆400047;
    3. 重庆师范大学三峡库区山地生态与区域发展研究所, 重庆400047
  • 收稿日期:2012-06-01 修回日期:2012-08-01 出版日期:2013-02-25 发布日期:2013-02-07
  • 通讯作者: 黄志霖(1966-),男,副研究员。E-mail:hzlin66@163.com E-mail:hzlin66@163.com
  • 作者简介:王金亮(1988-),男,江西婺源人,硕士研究生,主要研究方向为景观生态与GIS应用。E-mail:wang20080528@126.com
  • 基金资助:

    国家科技支撑计划课题项目(2011BAD38B04); 重庆市自然科学基金一般项目(2009BB7239)。

Gradient distribution of belt transects and characteristics of spatial clustering of point pattern of woodland landscapes: A case study of ecological barrier zone of Three-Gorges Reservoir in Chongqing

WANG Jinliang1,2, HUANG Zhilin1, SHAO Jing'an2,3, LI Yangbing2   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Forest Ecology and Environment, State Forestry Administration, Research Institute of Forest Ecology Environment and Protection, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing 100091, China;
    2. College of Geography and Tourism, Chongqing Normal University, Chongqing 400047, China;
    3. Institute of Mountainous Ecology and Regional Development in Three-Gorges Reservoir Area, Chongqing Normal University, Chongqing 400047, China
  • Received:2012-06-01 Revised:2012-08-01 Online:2013-02-25 Published:2013-02-07

摘要: 从点格局角度研究林地及其不同类型景观格局的空间分布特征, 以探求空间异质性在林地景观中的连续变化和分布趋势。选取点格局密度和Ripley K函数, 建立重庆库区生态屏障区不同样带和1997-2005 年间林地景观的点格局数据库, 以此分析林地及其3 种不同类型景观的样带梯度分布和空间聚集特征变化。结果表明:① 研究区林地景观点格局的样带梯度分布在整体上表现出空间极不均衡特征, 中心点上游林地景观点格局密度呈“双峰”梯度空间分布特征, 下游呈“阶梯”梯度空间分布特征;② 在各级空间尺度和时间变化上, 屏障区林地景观格局都表现出局部空间聚集分布, 与1997 年相比, 2005 年林地分布范围在扩张, 且空间分布均匀程度在提高, 而空间聚集分布的特征在减弱;③ 有林地景观空间聚集特征与整体林地景观接近一致, 有林地的基质优势在减弱。灌木林地分布在空间上比有林地更为集聚, 在时间上聚集程度也在加强。疏林地由于在空间上扩张速度快致使其空间聚集发生减弱, 空间分散性更大。

关键词: Ripley K函数, 点格局, 空间聚集, 林地景观, 三峡库区, 生态屏障区, 重庆

Abstract: From the perspective of point pattern, this paper presents a study of the distribution mechanism of spatial characteristics of woodland and its different types of landscapes, in order to explore the continuous change and the trend of spatial heterogeneity distribution of woodland landscapes, and provide the basis for rational planning and construction of woodland landscapes. By using point process density and Ripley K function, we established different belt transects for the ecological barrier zone of Three Gorges Reservoir in Chongqing, created the point pattern database for the woodland landscapes from 1997 to 2005, and then analyzed the gradient distribution of the belt transects and the change of the spatial clustering of the woodland and its three different types of landscapes. The results indicated that: (1) the gradient distribution of the belt transects as a whole was strikingly unbalanced, with the point process density showing“twin peak”distribution upstream of center point, and gradient distribution downstream of it. (2) As for the changes in different spatial and temporal scales, the point patterns of all woodland landscapes in the barrier zone showed distribution of local spatial clustering. Although the largest L(d) value of the spatial scale were both 40 km in 1997 and 2005, the range of woodland distribution expanded since 2005; Uniform spatial distribution increased, and spatial clustering decreased. (3) The characteristics of spatial clustering of forest land coincided with overall woodland landscapes, the largest L(d) value of the spatial scales were both 40 km in 1997 and 2005, but the forest land started to lose its natural advantages. Distribution of shrub land was more clustered in space in comparison to forest land, and the degree of clustering increased with time, with the largest L(d) values of spatial scales being 50 km in both 1997 and 2005. Open forest land expanded rather fast, and became dispersed in space as a result of reduced spatial clustering. The largest L(d) value of spatial scales was 40 km in 1997 and 30 km in 2005.

Key words: Chongqing, ecological barrier zone, forest landscape, point pattern, Ripley K function, spatial cluster, Three-Gorges Reservoir