地理科学进展 ›› 2011, Vol. 30 ›› Issue (8): 1014-1020.doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2011.08.008

• 区域与产业布局 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国城市化发展的紧凑度评价分析

马丽, 金凤君   

  1. 中国科学院区域可持续发展分析与模拟重点实验室中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101
  • 收稿日期:2010-10-01 修回日期:2011-02-01 出版日期:2011-08-25 发布日期:2011-09-23
  • 作者简介:马丽(1975-),女,博士,副研究员,山西省祁县人,主要从事经济地理与区域发展方面的研究。E-mail: mali@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学重点基金项目(40635026)。

Evaluation of Chinese Urban Compactness

MALi, JIN Fengjun   

  1. Key Laboratory of Regional Sustainable Development Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
  • Received:2010-10-01 Revised:2011-02-01 Online:2011-08-25 Published:2011-09-23

摘要: 中国快速的城市化进程带来的城市空间扩张造成耕地面积减少以及能源资源消费与污染排放增长。20 世纪60 年代以来欧美国家紧凑型城市发展模式以其在有限的城市空间布局较高密度的产业和人口的特征,成为目前中国城市发展的选择。但是,由于中国的城市化发展道路和特征迥异于西方国家,因此关于紧凑城市“提高城市密度、促进土地利用的功能混合以及鼓励公交出行”的内涵,以及紧凑城市可以降低城市交通能源消费与污染排放、提高城市土地利用效率以及城市公共服务设施利用率的观点在中国是否可行,还需要仔细分析。在辨析中国所需要的紧凑城市内涵基础上,建立城市紧凑度评估指标体系,对中国120 个地级及以上城市的紧凑度进行评估,并对其与资源利用和污染排放强度的相关性进行分析。研究发现,中国67.2%的城市处于不紧凑状态,城市的紧凑度与城市人口规模、经济规模没有很强的联系,与人均能源消耗以及污水排放的相关系数也比较低。究其原因,主要归结于中国城市化发展阶段、城市产业结构特征以及城市基础设施投资不足。本文还对中国需要什么样的紧凑城市,以及如何实现紧凑等进行了探讨。

关键词: 紧凑城市, 紧凑度, 中国, 资源环境效应

Abstract: Rapid urban expansion in China has led to the plowland reduction, energy consumption and pollution discharge increase. The concept of compact city prevailing in western countries since the 1960s has become the choice for China's urban development with the character of high density of industrial sectors and population in limited space. However, the route and characters of Chinese urbanization are rather different from those of western countries. It is necessary to study the feasibility on whether compact city could lead to the decrease of traffic energy consumption and pollution, and increasing economic efficiency of urban land infrastructure. Based on the analysis of compact cities, this paper built the urban compactness evaluation indicators of Chinese cities, evaluated the urban compactness of 120 cities above prefecture level, and studied its correlation matrix with urban size, resource consumption and pollution factors. The results show that many cities were in the low degree of compactness in China, and there is a weak correlation between urban compactness with the size of urban population and economy. And it is the same to the resource consumption and pollution release. There are three factors which lead to this dilemma, including rapid urbanization process, characters of urban industrial structure and low investment on public infrastructure. Finally, this paper discussed several questions: (1) what is the ultimate aim of city development? (2) what compact cities does China need? (3) how could China build compact cities?

Key words: China, compact city, impact on resource and environment, urban compactness