地理科学进展 ›› 2010, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (9): 1129-1136.doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2010.09.016

• 水文过程 • 上一篇    下一篇

1958-2006年玛纳斯河流域水系结构时空演变及驱动机制分析

凌红波1,2, 徐海量1, 乔木1, 樊自立1, 史薇1,2, 张青青1,2   

  1. 1. 中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所|乌鲁木齐830011;
    2. 中国科学院研究生院|北京100049
  • 收稿日期:2010-01-01 修回日期:2010-05-01 出版日期:2010-09-25 发布日期:2010-09-25
  • 通讯作者: 徐海量(1971-),男,江苏宝应人,博士,副研究员,主要从事干旱区生态环境研究。E-mail: xuhl@ms.xjb.ac.cn. E-mail:xuhl@ms.xjb.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:凌红波(1983-)|男|河南商丘人|博士|主要从事生态水文研究.E-mail: linghongbo0929@163.com.
  • 基金资助:

    国家科技支撑计划项目(2007BAC17B01)

Temporal-spatial Evolution of Stream Construction and Its Driving Forces in Manas River Basin During 1958-2006

ZING Hongbo1,2, XU Hailiang1, QIAO Mug1, FAN Zili1, SHI Wei1,2, ZHANG Qingqing1,2   

  1. 1. Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, CAS, Urumqi 830011, China;
    2. Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2010-01-01 Revised:2010-05-01 Online:2010-09-25 Published:2010-09-25

摘要:

为了研究玛纳斯河流域水系结构演变状况,利用其1958,1976,1987,2006年4期遥感影像图,在ArcInIo支持下进行口视解译,根据解译结果,定量分析了水系长度、密度、分枝比、长度比和分维等参数的变化特征,并探讨其主要驱动因素。研究表明:1958-2006年玛纳斯河流域水系变化满足Hotton定律,水网数口及河道平均长度随水网级别呈几何级数变化,并且水网密度、水系长度比、分枝比等参数持续增大;流域内绿洲地区水网密度高于南部源流山区与北部荒漠区,这种区域差异是由不同生态经济单元的自然生态环境类型、社会经济发展状况,综合发展需求及生态修复重建等方面共同决定的;玛纳斯河流域水资源量近50年来不断增加,人口数量持续攀升,耕地与绿洲面积不断扩大等因素是玛纳斯河流域水网结构演变的主要驱动力。然而耕地不能无限扩大,绿洲也不能过度扩张,要以水资源的承载能力为限,因此确定合理的绿洲面积,优化水系结构,提高水资源利用效率将成为今后研究的重点。

关键词: Horton定律, 玛纳斯河流域, 驱动力, 时空演变, 水系结构

Abstract:

This paper analyzes dynamic changes of length, density, branching ratio, length ratio and fractal dimension of the river networks and their driving factors based on the visual interpretation of remote sensing image of Manas River Basin during 1958, 1976, 1987 and 2006 by using the software of Are/Info. In the results, the changes of the river networks obey Horton’s law, with geometric changes of stream number and average length and with continuous increase of river density, length ratio and branching ratio. River density of oases in the basin is higher than that in the southern mountainous areas and the northern deserts. This is determined by the eeo-environment, social-economic, synconditions, integrated development and ecological restoration in those areas. The increase of water quantity, population, and areas of cultivated lands and oases are the main driving factors. The expansion of cultivated land and oases is limited by water carrying capacity, therefore, it will become the key tasks to make rational plans for oases, to optimize river system structure and to improve water use efficiency.

Key words: driving factor, Horton law, Manas River Basin, structure of river system, temporal-spatial dynamics