地理科学进展 ›› 2006, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (3): 39-47.doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2006.03.005

• 气候变化与环境 • 上一篇    下一篇

城市空气质量健康风险评估研究进展

张莉1,2, 王五一1, 廖永丰1,3   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 北京100101|
    2. 中国科学院研究生院, 北京100049|
    3. 国家减灾中心, 北京100053
  • 收稿日期:2005-12-01 修回日期:2006-04-01 出版日期:2006-05-25 发布日期:2006-05-25
  • 作者简介:张莉(1977- ), 女, 黑龙江人, 博士生.主要从事环境与健康研究.E- mail:zhangli@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:

    中国科学院知识创新工程重要方向项目(KZCX3- SW- 437) .

Resear ch Progr ess on Urban Air Quality Health Risk Assessment

ZHANG Li1,2, WANG Wuyi1, LIAO Yongfeng1,3   

  1. 1. Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101|China|
    2. Graduate School, CAS, Beijing 100049, China|
    3. National Disaster Reduction Center of China, Beijing 100053, China
  • Received:2005-12-01 Revised:2006-04-01 Online:2006-05-25 Published:2006-05-25

摘要:

随着工业化、城市化的发展, 城市大气污染对环境和人体健康的潜在影响正日益引起世界 各国的普遍关注。尤其是污染物产生的健康效应评估是当前研究的热点。目前空气质量健康影响 评估采用的主要方法是风险评估。完整的环境健康风险评估框架包括危害鉴别, 剂量—效应关系 评价, 暴露评价和风险表征四个环节。作者对城市空气质量数值模拟、人口暴露、大气污染物毒理 及其健康效应的研究现状分别阐述, 从研究尺度, 研究方法和健康效应的量化指标角度剖析了目 前研究存在的局限性, 提出未来研究的趋向及需重点解决的问题。

关键词: 城市空气质量, 风险评估, 健康

Abstract:

At present, air pollution draws attention of many researchers and officials from all countries to the latent impacts to human health in the world, along with the development of industrialization and urbanization. Study focus is to assess health effects of exposure to pollutants. Recently health risk assessment of air pollution is being developed at home and abroad. The full risk assessment process includes identification of pollutant concentration, exposure assessment, dose and effect assessment and expression of human health risk. The authors introduce research progress in urban air quality simulation, human exposure, air pollutant toxicology and health effect, and GIS operation in health risk assessment in recent years. Having analysed existing researches, the authors find some research limits, including: 1. Research scale are restricted to small regions, and data from limit inspect stations can't assess broad regions, such as megapolis; 2. Applied methods usually are qualitative although some are semi- quantitative assessment on the basis of WHO air quality health effect standard; 3. Indexes of human effect mainly are morbidity and mortality, and seldom research touches on health risk of exposed population; 4. Some researches focus on conventional pollutants health effect in short term, and little involve comparatively sensitive traffic pollutant health effect. In order to serve population, future research should concentrate on simulating microscopic urban air quality, structuring quantitative assessment based on exposure- dose relationship and developing long- term pollutant health effect models according to actually absorbed dose.

Key words: human health, risk assessment, urban air quality

中图分类号: 

  • X144