地理科学进展 ›› 2004, Vol. 23 ›› Issue (6): 41-48.doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2004.06.005

• 资源与生态环境 • 上一篇    下一篇

空间信息技术支持下的沿海风能资源评价

江 东1, 王建华2   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101
    2. 中国水利水电科学研究院水资源研究所,北京 100044
  • 收稿日期:2004-04-01 修回日期:2004-09-01 出版日期:2004-11-25 发布日期:2004-11-25
  • 作者简介:江东,男,安徽寿县人,博士,副研究员,主要研究方向为资源环境遥感应用。
  • 基金资助:

    973项目“黄河流域水资源演化规律与可再生性维持机理”(G1999043602)。

Wind Energy Resources Assessment in the Coastal Zones I33 Based on Spatial Information Technique

JIANG Dong1, WANG Jianhua2   

  1. 1. Resource and Environment Data Center, Institute of Geographic Science and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101
    2. Institute of Water Resource and Hydropower, IWHR,Beijing 100044
  • Received:2004-04-01 Revised:2004-09-01 Online:2004-11-25 Published:2004-11-25

摘要:

沿海地区是我国重要的风能资源区,由于近地面风场具有很强的时空变异性,给风能资源定量评价带来了很大困难。空间信息技术的发展为我们提供了新的视角和手段,近年来,利用星载合成孔径雷达(SAR)进行沿海风场信息遥感反演已从试验逐步走向成熟,它以布拉格原理为依据,建立合成孔径雷达后向散射系数与海面风场之间的关系,反演风速、风向等关键参数,并进而对研究区风能资源进行准确的定量评价。本文回顾了本领域国内外研究进展,重点阐述了风场要素反演的基本方法和校验手段,探讨了目前存在的一些问题和改进方法,并对本方法在我国的应用前景作了展望。

关键词: 风能, 空间信息技术, 评价, 资源

Abstract:

Coastal zones play a very important role in wind energy resources exploration in China. Offshore wind is an attractive energy source due to the potential of very high wind power as a result of relatively low sea surface roughness. The great variation of wind field near the ground baffles wind energy resources assessment. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images from remote sensing satellites have been achieved over the oceans on a continuous basis. Their unique characters, including independence on daylight, uninfluenced from clouds, high spatial resolution and large spatial coverage, make them a very useful tool for acquiring main parameters of wind fields in ocean areas. Main data sources are ERS-1 and ERS-2 satellites of Europe, the RADARSAT-1 satellite of Canada, and the latest European satellite ENVISAT.  SAR-derived sea wind maps may be estimated from empirical scatter meter algorithms that are valid for open sea conditions. With recent development of spatial information techniques, methodology and algorithm for retrieving wind vectors from SAR onboard satellite become mature. The physical principle is that capillary waves and short gravity waves at the sea surface created by the instantaneous wind field backscatters electromagnetic radiation in the C-band as emitted and received by the SAR instrument. Relationship between backscatter coefficient and sea surface wind field was established based on Bragg mechanism, and key factors such as wind direction and speed were derived. Empirical algorithms, the so-called scatterometer models CMOD-4 and CMOD-IFR, relate the backscattered signal to wind speed.  The paper gave a brief review in this area. Means for wind field retrieval and validation were presented in detail. Problems and application prospect in China were also discussed.

Key words: assessment, resource, spatial information techniques, wind energy