地理科学进展 ›› 2010, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (9): 1143-1152.doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2010.09.018

• 水文过程 • 上一篇    

不透水表面遥感监测及其应用研究进展

刘珍环1,2, 王仰麟2, 彭建2   

  1. 1. 北京大学深圳研究生院城市规划与设计学院|城市人居环境科学与技术重点实验室|深圳518055;
    2. 北京大学城市与环境学院|地表过程分析与模拟教育部重点实验室|北京100871
  • 收稿日期:2010-01-01 修回日期:2010-05-01 出版日期:2010-09-25 发布日期:2010-09-25
  • 通讯作者: 王仰麟.E-mail: ylwang@urban.pku.edu.cn. E-mail:ylwang@urban.pku.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:刘珍环(1982-)|男|江西泰和人|博士。主要从事景观生态与土地利用研究.E-mail: zhenhuanliu@gmail.com.
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(40635028, 40801066);中国博士后科学基金项目(20070420001,200801017)

Remote Sensing of Impervious Surface and Its Applications: A Review

LIU Zhenhuan1,2, WANG Yanglin2, PENG Jian2   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory for Urban Habitat Environmental Science and Technology, School of Urban Planning and Design, Shenzhen Graduate School of Peking University, Shenzhen 518055;
    2. Key Laboratory for Earth Suuace Processes of Ministry of Education, and College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
  • Received:2010-01-01 Revised:2010-05-01 Online:2010-09-25 Published:2010-09-25

摘要:

不透水表面是城市中一种人工地表特征,隔离地表水下渗到上壤,割断了城市地表与地下水文联系,主要由城市中的道路、停车场、广场及屋顶等建筑物组成。不透水表面影响城市的地表径流、水文循环、水体质量、局部气候、生物多样性等生态环境要素,是监测城市生态系统及环境变化的重要指标,也是许多生态环境模型的主要输入参数。本文归纳了不透水表面提取技术及其对城市自然生态环境影响的研究进展。从遥感提取技术方面看,亚像元分解等新的运算方法提取中尺度分辨率遥感影像的不透水表面,将是未来遥感技术应用到城市自然资源环境研究的趋势。在数据源方面,中分辨率(10~100m)与高分辨率(0.3~5m)遥感数据为不透水表面指数在大范围、多时段的获取提供了可靠基础。在不透水表面指数应用方面,城市地表覆被监测与模拟可以为城市未来发展及规划管理提供基础。鉴于不透水表面决定了城市地区的地表水文循环、非点源污染、能量分布、植被变化及生物多样性等生态环境要素,因此搭起深入理解城市景观格局与生态过程相互关系的桥梁,是研究城市化的生态环境效应的最佳切入点。

关键词: 不透水表面指数, 城市化, 环境指标, 流域规划与管理, 遥感提取技术

Abstract:

Impervious surface can be defined as any materials that prevent the infiltration of water into the soil. Principally, roads and rooftops in the urban are the most prevalent and easily identified types of impervious surfaces. Other types include sidewalks, patios, bedrock outcrops, and compacted soils in the urban areas. Impervious surface not only indicates urbanization, but also is a major contrihutor to the environmental impacts of urbanization. Impervious surface area (ISA) is the index of impervious surface landscape components, which uses the percentage in a pixel for representation. It is an index to monitor the urban ecological system and environmental change, and is an important indicator of the ecological and environmental model, which can affect urban hydrological cycle, surface runoff, water quality, local climate, and biological diversity. This paper reviews the development of remote sensing technology of impervious surface, and summarizes how it impacts urban ecosystem and urban environmental system. From the aspect of remote sensing technology, sub-pixel decomposition including spectral mixture analysis and regression analysis, and other new methods for interpreting image, will be the trend of the application of remote sensing research to urban natural resources and environmental studies in the future. From the aspect of remote sensing data source, the data of medium-resolution (10-100 m) image and high-resolution (0.3-5 m) image, which are used to estimate the index of impervious surface in multi-temporal and large-spatial area, can provide a reliable basis to monitor urban land use/cover change and environmental response. As an environmental indicator, impervious surface area (ISA) can be used to monitor urban land cover change and simulate future urban development, providing a basis for the decision making of urban planning and management. Referring to the fact that impervious surface has an important relation to the hydrological cycle, non-point source pollution, land surface temperature, vegetation variation and biological diversity, if we can understand the relationship between impervious surface area and the environmental or ecological indicators, we(an better understand urban landscape pattern and ecological processes. Impervious surface area plays an important role in studying the eco-environmental effects of urbanization.

Key words: environmental indicator, impervious surface area, remote sensing of impervious surface, urbanization, watershed planning and management