地理科学进展 ›› 2011, Vol. 30 ›› Issue (8): 986-994.doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2011.08.005

• 城市研究 • 上一篇    下一篇

新型城市分工下的城市经济联系研究

李燕1, 贺灿飞2,3   

  1. 1. 北京大学深圳研究生院城市规划与设计学院,深圳 518055;
    2. 北京大学城市与环境学院,北京 100871;
    3. 北京大学—林肯研究院城市发展与土地政策研究中心,北京 100871
  • 收稿日期:2010-10-01 修回日期:2011-04-01 出版日期:2011-08-25 发布日期:2011-08-25
  • 通讯作者: 贺灿飞(1972-),男,博士,教授。E-mail: hecanfei@urban.pku.edu.cn E-mail:hecanfei@urban.pku.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:李燕(1988-),女,硕士研究生,主要从事经济地理、产业和区域经济等研究。E-mail: liyan.chimera@gmail.com
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金重点项目(40830747);国家自然科学基金项目(41071075,40871065);科技部科技基础性工作专项重点项目(2007FY140800-2)。

Urban Economic Linkage Research under the New Division of Labor

LI Yan1, HE Canfei2,3   

  1. 1. Urban Planning and Design Institute, Shenzhen Graduate School of Peking University, Shenzhen 518055, China;
    2. College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China;
    3. Peking University-Lincoln Institute Center for Urban Development and Land Policy, Beijing 100871, China
  • Received:2010-10-01 Revised:2011-04-01 Online:2011-08-25 Published:2011-08-25

摘要: 城市经济联系研究的发展转向与城市专业化分工的转变密切相关,本文在城市专业化分工与一体化的视角下回顾了城市经济联系研究的相关理论和研究方法进展,并探讨了中国城市经济联系研究面临的问题和研究趋势。传统城市分工语境下的城市经济联系表现为基于上下游产业的商品流动,进而产生等级结构的城市系统;然而,在以价值链功能分工为核心的新型城市分工基础上,城市经济联系扩展到资本流、人口流动和信息流动等多方面,城市经济联系更加复杂,全球城市经济结构发生重大转变。在研究方法上,传统城市经济联系的研究依赖引力模型,并在此基础上发展了城市等级体系的测量方法;新型城市经济联系研究纳入网络分析的方法,打破了传统功能主义的城市等级体系研究,强调对全球城市网络结构的探讨。在对上述研究总结评述的基础上,本文指出未来研究需要对城市经济联系的理论进行整合,增强对其发生机制的探讨。特别对于中国的研究需要扩展研究视角和研究方法,加强对制度因素的思考,增强经济全球化背景下中国城市系统的探讨。

关键词: 城市等级体系, 城市经济联系, 城市专业化分工, 全球城市网络

Abstract: The shift of urban economic linkage research is closely related to the change of urban specialization. Therefore, this paper provides a literature review on urban economic linkage from the perspective of urban specialization. In the paper, we focus on urban economic linkage theories and measurement methods, and furthermore discuss the merits and drawbacks of various approaches. According to the neoclassical theory, comparative advantage determines spatial division of labor and cities specialized in different industries. Urban economic linkage is dominated by population mobility and commodity trade linkages determined by the city size and distance. The earliest theory related to urban economic linkage is“central place theory”, proposed by Christaller in 1933 and developed by Losch in 1939. If all urban activities involved in the same degree of scale economies and transport costs, a regular lattice of equal-sized urban places shows that on a homogeneous plain there are Losch’s famous hexagonal market areas. When activities differ in scale effects and transportation costs, there would be urban areas of different types, which is argued by Christaller as a hierarchical structure. The gravity model is widely applied to estimate urban economic linkage. As economic globalization and regional integration proceed, spatial division of labor is largely determined by the secondary natural factors and the cities specialized in different functions along a value chain. Urban economic linkages have gone beyond the population migration and commodity trade, with flows of capital, information, technology, talents and services among cities. As a consequence, regional and global city networks have been developed. Correspondingly, gravity models are less suitable to study the current urban economic linkages, and network analysis is therefore widely applied in the study of urban economic linkages. For further studies, the integration of theories of urban economic linkage’s elements and the deeper discussion of the mechanism is necessary. This paper finally points some directions for further studies on China’s urban economic linkage.

Key words: global city network, urban economic linkage, urban hierarchical system, urban specialization