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地理科学进展  2015, Vol. 34 Issue (3): 354-363    DOI: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2015.03.010
  水文水资源 本期目录 | 过刊浏览 | 高级检索 |
1960-2013年秦岭—淮河南北极端降水时空变化特征及其影响因素
李双双1,2,杨赛霓1,2(),刘宪锋1,3
1. 北京师范大学地表过程与资源生态国家重点实验室,北京 100875
2. 北京师范大学减灾与应急管理研究院,北京 100875
3. 北京师范大学资源学院,北京 100875
Spatiotemporal variability of extreme precipitation in north and south of the Qinling-Huaihe region and influencing factors during 1960-2013
Shuangshuang LI1,2,Saini YANG1,2(),Xianfeng LIU1,3
1. State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
2. Academy of Disaster Reduction and Emergency Management, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
3. College of Resource Sciences and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
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摘要 

基于秦岭—淮河南北气象站点逐日降水数据和全国0.5°×0.5°逐月降水格网数据,选取16个极端降水指数,辅以趋势分析、Mann-Kendall检验和相关分析等气候诊断方法,分析了1960-2013年秦岭—淮河南北极端降水时空变化特征,探讨了极端降水变化与ENSO事件的关系。结果表明:①1960-2013年秦岭—淮河南北除长江下游降水呈增加趋势外,其他区域降水均呈下降趋势;②极端降水变化主要表现为:降水日数减少,降水强度上升,突发性强降水事件增多,连续性干旱事件增多;在空间上,秦巴山地、长江下游和黄河下游以极端降水强度上升为主,关中平原、巫山山区和四川盆地以极端干旱强度上升为主;③在影响因素方面,秦岭—淮河南北极端降水与ENSO事件关系密切。在厄尔尼诺年,秦岭—淮河南北春季极端降水偏多,夏季和全年偏少;在拉尼娜年,春季极端降水偏少,秋季和全年偏多。就各个区域而言,在厄尔尼诺年,黄河下游、关中平原、秦巴山地和四川盆地极端降水呈下降趋势,淮河平原极端降水呈上升趋势,长江下游和巫山山区响应并不明显。

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李双双
杨赛霓
刘宪锋
关键词 气候变化极端降水时空变化秦岭—淮河南北    
Abstract

Based on the monthly precipitation of a 0.5°×0.5° grid dataset and the daily precipitation observations of 135 meteorological stations released by the National Meteorological Information Center of China, this study analyzed the spatiotemporal variation of extreme precipitation in north and south of the Qinling-Huaihe region during 1960-2013, using the methods of trend analysis, Sen+Mann-Kendall model, and correlation analysis. More specifically, we analyzed the relationship between ENSO and the observed extreme precipitation. The results are as follows: (1) the precipitation showed an increasing trend in the lower reach of the Yangtze River and a decreasing tendency in the other regions; (2) extreme precipitation analysis indicates a declining trend in rainy days and an increasing trend in precipitation intensity. The number of continuous drought events increased. Spatially, the regions with increasing intensity of extreme precipitation were mainly distributed in the Qinling-Bashan Mountains and the lower reaches of the Yangtze River and Yellow River, whereas there were more drought events in the Guanzhong Plain, Wushan Mountains, and Sichuan Basin; (3) Extreme precipitation had a close relationship with ENSO in the study region. In El Niño years, more precipitation was found in the spring but there was less precipitation in the summer and the whole year. In La Niña years, there was less precipitation in the spring and more precipitation in the autumn and the whole year. The responses of extreme precipitation events to El Niño exhibited spatial differences. Most of the regions with decreasing extreme precipitation in El Niño years were distributed in the lower reach of the Yellow River, the Guanzhong Plain and Qinling-Bashan Mountains, as well as the Sichuan Basin, while the region with increasing extreme precipitation was the Huaihe Plain. The lower reach of the Yangtze River and the Wushan Mountains showed no clear response to ENSO.

Key wordsclimate change    extreme precipitation    spatiotemporal change    north and south of the Qinling -Huaihe region
     出版日期: 2015-08-11
基金资助:地表过程模型与模拟创新研究群体科学基金项目(41321001);国家重点基础研究发展计划项目(2012CB955402)
作者简介: 李双双(1988-),男,陕西潼关人,博士生,主要研究方向为全球变化与区域灾害防治,E-mail:lss40609010@126.com。
引用本文:   
李双双,杨赛霓,刘宪锋. 1960-2013年秦岭—淮河南北极端降水时空变化特征及其影响因素[J]. 地理科学进展, 2015, 34(3): 354-363.
Shuangshuang LI,Saini YANG,Xianfeng LIU. Spatiotemporal variability of extreme precipitation in north and south of the Qinling-Huaihe region and influencing factors during 1960-2013. PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY, 2015, 34(3): 354-363.
链接本文:  
http://www.progressingeography.com/CN/10.11820/dlkxjz.2015.03.010      或      http://www.progressingeography.com/CN/Y2015/V34/I3/354
Fig.1  研究区气候区划及气象站点分布图
指标类型 极端降水指数 英文缩写 定义
绝对指标 雨日日数 RD 年内日降水日数/d
痕雨日数 Rr1 年内日降水量≥1 mm日数/d
小雨日数 Rr5 年内日降水量≥5 mm日数/d
中雨日数 Rr10 年内日降水量≥10 mm日数/d
大雨日数 Rr25 年内日降水量≥25 mm日数/d
强度指标 1日最大降水量 Rx1day 月内1日降水量最大值/mm
5日最大降水量 Rx5day 月内连续5日降水量最大值/mm
年降水强度 SDII 年内降水量与日降水量≥1 mm 日数之比/(mm/d)
相对指标 异常降水日数 R95 年内日降水量高于95%阈值日数之和/d
极端降水日数 R99 年内日降水量高于99%阈值日数之和/d
异常降水总量 R95P 年内日降水量高于95%阈值降水量之和/mm
极端降水总量 R99P 年内日降水量高于99%阈值降水量之和/mm
持续性指标 连续无雨日数 CDD 年内日降水量连续<1 mm日数最大值/d
连续降水日数 CWD 年内日降水量连续≥1 mm日数最大值/d
年降水量 PRCPTOT 年内日降水量≥1 mm降水量之和/mm
生长季降水量 GPRCP 年内4-9月(生长季)降水量之和/mm
Tab.1  16个极端降水指数定义
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