地理科学进展 ›› 2022, Vol. 41 ›› Issue (4): 693-706.doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2022.04.013

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

重庆市岩溶泉发育特征与流量控制机制分析

肖成芳1(), 魏兴萍1,2,*(), 张爱国1, 陈英1   

  1. 1.重庆师范大学地理与旅游学院,重庆 401331
    2.长江上游湿地科学研究重庆市重点实验室,重庆 401331
  • 收稿日期:2021-07-15 修回日期:2021-08-27 出版日期:2022-04-28 发布日期:2022-06-28
  • 通讯作者: *魏兴萍(1974— ),女,博士,教授,主要从事资源环境与地理信息系统研究。E-mail: xingpingwei@126.com
  • 作者简介:肖成芳(1995— ),女,重庆彭水人,硕士生,主要从事水文水资源研究。E-mail: chengfangxiao1114@126.com
  • 基金资助:
    重庆市自然科学基金项目(cstc2021jcyj-msxmX0616);重庆师范大学新引进博士人才项目(20XLB021);重庆师范大学第五届“三春湖”杯大学生课外学术项目(202201453)

Development characteristics and flow control mechanism of karst springs in Chongqing Municipality

XIAO Chengfang1(), WEI Xingping1,2,*(), ZHANG Aiguo1, CHEN Ying1   

  1. 1. College of Geography and Tourism, Chongqing Normal University, Chongqing 401331, China
    2. Chongqing Key Laboratory of Wetland Science Research in the Upper Reaches of the Yangtze River, Chongqing 401331, China
  • Received:2021-07-15 Revised:2021-08-27 Online:2022-04-28 Published:2022-06-28
  • Supported by:
    Natural Science Foundation of Chongqing Municipality(cstc2021jcyj-msxmX0616);The Newly Introduced Doctoral Talent Project of Chongqing Normal University(20XLB021);The 5th "Three Spring Lakes" Cup College Students Extracurricular Academic Program of Chongqing Normal University(202201453)

摘要:

为给岩溶山区的经济发展和居民的生产生活提供水资源保障,论文以重庆市为例,通过查明重庆岩溶泉及其流量的发育规律和控制机制,利用1∶200000区域水文地质图和水文地质普查报告,运用水文地质勘查、统计分析和ArcGIS的空间分析等手段,在分析岩溶发育特征的基础上,分析地形地貌、地层岩性、地质构造和地表水系等因素对岩溶泉发育、分布及其流量的影响。结果表明:地势起伏度范围在0~200 m时最有利于岩溶泉的发育,随着地势起伏度的增加,岩溶泉平均流量开始逐渐减少;碳酸盐岩与碎屑岩岩组岩溶泉发育密度最大,其次为灰岩与白云岩互层岩组、灰岩岩组、白云岩岩组;构造复合部位、背斜缓翼、向斜轴部、断裂构造等地质构造部位均有利于岩溶泉发育;以岩溶水水动力特征及其与当地侵蚀基准面的相互关系为依据,将重庆市的岩溶大泉划分为以下3种类型:河床型、河岸型、河源型,而岩溶大泉分布数量由多到少分别为河岸型>河源型>河床型。

关键词: 岩溶泉, 发育特征, 区域规律, 控制机制, 重庆

Abstract:

In order to provide water resources for the economic development in karst mountainous areas, this study took Chongqing Municipality as an example and identified the development fracture and control mechanism of karst springs and their flow using 1∶200000 regional hydrogeological maps and reports, on-site hydrogeological surveys, basic feature and statistical analyses, and ArcGIS spatial analysis methods. On the basis of analyzing the characteristics of karst development, this study examined the influence of topography, stratum lithology, geological structure, and surface water system on the development, distribution, and flow of karst springs. Our findings revealed that the relief amplitude of 0-200 m is most conducive to the development of karst springs. With the increase of relief of land surface, the average flow rate of karst springs begins to decrease gradually. The density of karst springs is the greatest in the carbonate and clastic rock group, followed by the limestone and dolomite interbedded rock group, limestone rock group, and dolomite rock group. Geological structural parts such as structure composite, gentle wings of anticlines, syncline shafts, and faulted structures are all conducive to the development of karst springs. Based on the hydrodynamic characteristics of karst water and the relationship with the local erosion base level, the large karst springs in Chongqing are divided into the following three types: riverbed type, riparian type, and river source (ditch) type, and the number of large karst springs is river bank type > source (ditch) type > river bed type.

Key words: karst spring, developmental characteristics, regional pattern, control mechanisms, Chongqing Municipality