地理科学进展 ›› 2020, Vol. 39 ›› Issue (10): 1667-1676.doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2020.10.006

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

独角兽企业内部联系视角下中国城市创新网络空间结构研究

周晓艳(), 侯美玲*(), 李霄雯   

  1. 武汉大学资源与环境科学学院,武汉 430079
  • 收稿日期:2019-11-11 修回日期:2020-05-14 出版日期:2020-10-28 发布日期:2020-10-27
  • 通讯作者: 侯美玲
  • 作者简介:周晓艳(1974— ),女,湖北荆门人,博士,副教授,主要从事城市与区域规划研究。E-mail: zhouxiaoyan@whu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41571384);国家自然科学基金项目(71403193)

Spatial structure of urban innovation network based on the Chinese unicorn company network

ZHOU Xiaoyan(), HOU Meiling*(), LI Xiaowen   

  1. School of Resource and Environmental Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079, China
  • Received:2019-11-11 Revised:2020-05-14 Online:2020-10-28 Published:2020-10-27
  • Contact: HOU Meiling
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China(41571384);National Natural Science Foundation of China(71403193)

摘要:

独角兽企业是新经济时代不同形式创新的集中组织和整合,其内部联系及空间组织反映了区域创新网络的格局和特征。论文基于独角兽企业内部联系,通过总部—分支机构联系模型构建中国城市创新网络,运用社会网络分析方法从网络层级、关联模式、网络节点3个层面探究新经济时代中国城市创新网络的空间结构和特征。研究表明:① 独角兽企业内部联系视角下中国城市创新网络呈现“1+3+N”的核心城市驱动发展格局,“北上杭深”组合领跑全局,空间极化现象明显;② 中国城市创新网络的空间结构整体呈菱形结构,且明显呈东强西弱的格局;强联系主要发生在核心节点城市之间,其他城市通过与重要节点城市连接进入网络,网络核心—边缘结构突出;③ 重要的节点城市在城市创新网络中展示出较强的权力和威望,但在网络中发挥的作用有一定差异。研究可为新时代中国城市创新网络的研究提供新的视角,文中构建的独角兽指数亦可为城市创新综合实力评估研究提供参考。

关键词: 城市创新网络, 独角兽企业, 独角兽指数, 社会网络分析方法, 中国

Abstract:

Unicorn company, a new term in today's business climate, is the integration of different types of innovations in the new era, and its internal relations and spatial organization reflect the pattern and characteristics of regional innovation networks. Consistent with the emerging entrepreneurship and the rapid development of the Internet, increasingly more unicorn companies appear in China, which provides an opportunity for us to catch a glimpse of China's innovation development through a new perspective. In this study, we used the ownership linkage model to map China's urban innovation network based on 164 Chinese unicorn companies' internal relations, and analyzed the spatial structure through the following social network analysis perspectives: urban hierarchy, association pattern, and city nodes. The "unicorn index" was developed as an indicator to evaluate the development and magnitude of a city's unicorn companies as well as its innovation environment and position in the network. Cities of high unicorn index values rank high in the urban innovation network hierarchy, which constitutes four tiers in a pyramid-shaped structure with 253 cities, only nine of which are in the top three tiers. Among them, Beijing, Shanghai, Hangzhou, and Shenzhen show their innovative activity and advanced development in the unicorn entrepreneurship. To analyze the association pattern, we calculated the network density, assortativity coefficient, and the degree correlation for the network. The results show that most cities are not closely linked with each other in this generally loose-association urban innovation network, while intensive connections only happen between the cities with high unicorn index, highlighting an intensive-connection diamond-shaped structure. To further examine each city node, we regard outdegree as its innovative influence and "power", indegree as its innovative attraction and "prestige", and eigenvector centrality as its connectivity. We found that Beijing and Shanghai still play leading roles in the innovation network, but Nanjing and Wuhan start to exhibit innovative attraction and potential. In conclusion, the development of urban innovation network is driven by four leading cities—Beijing, Shanghai, Hangzhou, and Shenzhen, showing a spatial polarization character. The network pattern highlights a diamond structure whose activity weakens from the east to the west. Cities having high unicorn index are strongly linked to each other and playing important roles while other cities enter the network by establishing links to those cities, shaping the core-periphery network structure. Moreover, those important cities enjoy power and prestige and have various influences in the innovation network. This study provides a new look into China's urban innovation network and some insights for policymakers to promote urban innovation. Also, the unicorn index can be considered in city innovation evaluation.

Key words: urban innovation network, unicorn company, unicorn index, social network analysis, China