地理科学进展 ›› 2020, Vol. 39 ›› Issue (10): 1632-1642.doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2020.10.003

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

论乡村能人与乡村发展

李裕瑞1,2,3(), 常贵蒋1,2, 曹丽哲1,2, 龙花楼1,2,3   

  1. 1.中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京100101
    2.中国科学院大学,北京100049
    3.中国科学院区域可持续发展分析与模拟重点实验室,北京100101
  • 收稿日期:2020-03-06 修回日期:2020-05-12 出版日期:2020-10-28 发布日期:2020-10-27
  • 作者简介:李裕瑞(1983— ),男,四川隆昌人,博士,副研究员,硕士生导师,主要研究方向为乡村地理与工程。E-mail: lyr2008@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(XDA23070303);国家自然科学基金项目(41971220);国家自然科学基金项目(41731286);国家自然科学基金项目(41931293)

Rural elite and rural development

LI Yurui1,2,3(), CHANG Guijiang1,2, CAO Lizhe1,2, LONG Hualou1,2,3   

  1. 1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
    3. Key Laboratory of Regional Sustainable Development Modeling, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
  • Received:2020-03-06 Revised:2020-05-12 Online:2020-10-28 Published:2020-10-27
  • Supported by:
    Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences(XDA23070303);National Natural Science Foundation of China(41971220);National Natural Science Foundation of China(41731286);National Natural Science Foundation of China(41931293)

摘要:

乡村能人是中国乡村治理的重要主体,是推进乡村治理现代化的重要力量,深入研究乡村能人在乡村治理中的角色、作用及问题具有重要的现实意义。论文回顾了典型时期的乡村治理结构变迁,辨析了乡村能人的概念与类型,阐释了乡村能人在乡村发展中的多维角色,梳理了能人治村可能产生的负面效应,探讨了加强能人培育与监管的途径。研究认为:① 乡村能人是指在特定乡村被多数村民认可,具有较强的发展动力、个人能力和社会网络,有志于或正在或已经通过其专长带动乡村发展的人;② 通常,乡村能人是推动进步的“发动机”、集体行动的“火车头”、乡村发展的“铺路者”、对外联系的“架桥师”、乡村振兴的“带头人”;③ 但是,如果监管缺位,能人治村也可能对基层民主、经济发展和法制建设等带来负面影响;④ 为更好地实现国家乡村治理体系和治理能力现代化,需进一步加强能人的产生机制以及培育模式研究,深化能人治村的机理、模式与效应研究,关注驻村干部治村的新情况与新问题,并探索能人研究的新数据、新方法。在决胜全面建成小康社会、着力推进乡村振兴的转型期,加强乡村能人研究,有助于深化各界对乡村发展机制的理解、丰富乡村地理学研究的内容与理论。

关键词: 乡村能人, 乡村发展, 乡村振兴, 乡村治理, 社会网络

Abstract:

In recent years, rural geographers have made in-depth research on the utilization of resources, environmental change, economic development, spatial system, and regional pattern of rural areas. However, the research on the subjects/actors of rural development is relatively weak. Most of these studies focus on the temporal and spatial changes of population and interregional migration. In contrast, insufficient attention is paid to the subgroups of rural development subjects/actors. Rural elite is one of the main subjects of rural governance in China and an important force to promote the modernization of rural governance. Rural elite can often stimulate endogenous motivations, integrate external resources, and organize people to carry out a series of actions based on policy guidance and village resources to promote rural transformation and development. In-depth research on the roles, activities, and problems of rural elite in rural governance has important practical significance. This article analyzed the related concepts of rural elite and explored the active role of rural elite in maintaining the stability of rural society, promoting the economic development of villages, driving entrepreneurship, and fulfilling social responsibilities. We also analyzed the negative effects of autocracy and "distributed order" caused by the concentration of power, and discussed the obstacles and deficiencies of rural governance by rural elite. Rural elite refers to the individuals who are recognized by most villagers in a specific rural area, have strong motivation of development, personal ability, and social network, and are willing to lead or have driven rural development through own expertise. Generally, rural elite is the "engine" for promoting progress, the "locomotive" for collective action, the pioneer for village development, the "bridge builder" for external contact, and the leader of rural vitalization. However, if the supervision mechanism is absent, rural elite may also bring negative effects on the democracy, economic development, and law and order of local areas. In order to better realize the modernization of the rural governance system and governance capacity in China, it is recommended to further strengthen case studies of rural elite governance, deepen the theoretical research of rural elite governance, and explore innovative models for training rural elites. Specifically, it is necessary to strengthen the research on the emerging mechanism and cultivation model of rural elites, deepen the research on the mechanism, mode, and effect of governance by rural elites, pay attention to the new situation and problems of governance by rural elites, and explore the data and methods for the research on rural elites. Strengthening the research of rural elite is helpful for enriching the content and theory of rural geography.

Key words: rural elite, rural development, rural vitalization, rural governance, social networks