地理科学进展 ›› 2020, Vol. 39 ›› Issue (3): 367-376.doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2020.03.002

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国三大航空公司市场竞争格局及演化研究

杜德林1,2, 王姣娥1,2,*(), 王祎3   

  1. 1.中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,区域可持续发展分析与模拟重点实验室,北京 100101
    2.中国科学院大学资源与环境学院,北京 100049
    3.中国劳动关系学院公共管理学院,北京 100048
  • 收稿日期:2019-01-22 修回日期:2019-05-26 出版日期:2020-03-28 发布日期:2020-05-28
  • 通讯作者: 王姣娥 E-mail:wangje@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:杜德林(1994— ),男,山西霍州人,博士生,主要研究方向为交通地理与区域发展。E-mail: dudelin1994@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41722103)

Market structure and competition of the three major airlines in China

DU Delin1,2, WANG Jiaoe1,2,*(), WANG Yi3   

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Regional Sustainable Development Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    2.College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
    3.School of Public Administration, China University of Labor Relations, Beijing 100048, China
  • Received:2019-01-22 Revised:2019-05-26 Online:2020-03-28 Published:2020-05-28
  • Contact: WANG Jiaoe E-mail:wangje@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China(41722103)

摘要:

国航、东航和南航三大国有航空公司在中国航空运输市场具有举足轻重的作用,其市场竞争格局一直是经济学、管理学以及地理学的重要研究议题。论文基于航班时刻表数据,采用市场占有率和市场重叠率等方法,对比分析了2005年和2015年三大航空公司在国内和国际的市场竞争格局及演化特征。研究发现:2005—2015年三大航空公司的市场规模快速扩大,在国内的新增通航机场主要选择中部和西部地区,尤其黑龙江、内蒙古和贵州等是三者新增的主要市场竞争地;三大航空公司在国内市场竞争具有明显的省际差异,分别在各自运营基地具有较大优势,在国内航空运输集中的航段主要表现为两两竞争的格局;国际市场竞争主要集中在东亚和东南亚地区,尤其在日本和韩国市场的竞争激烈。

关键词: 航空公司, 航班频率, 市场竞争, 空间格局, 中国

Abstract:

Air China, China Eastern Airlines, and China Southern Airlines are the three major state-owned airlines in China, and they have significant influences in the air transportation market. Market competition of the three airlines has always been an important research topic in economics, management, and geography. Based on the flight schedule data, this study constructed a market share index and a market overlap index and used them to examine the structure and competition of the three major airlines on the Chinese and international markets in 2005 and 2015. The results are as follow: 1) The markets of the three major airlines have expanded rapidly over the decade of 2005-2015. In China, the three airlines have added navigation airports mainly in the central and western regions, especially in Heilongjiang Province, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, and Guizhou Province. These provinces are the new major market competition places. Among the three major airlines, China Southern Airlines has the largest number of absolutely dominant airports and flight routes, China Eastern Airlines has the largest increase, and Air China has a relatively small market. 2) Spatially, the three major airlines show significant regional differences in the domestic key markets, and each has a great advantage in its respective hub airports. The dominant routes of the three major airlines mainly form radial networks around their hub airports. Routes concentrated in domestic air transportation are mainly represented by competition among two of the three major airlines. With increasing market competition, the market shares of the three airlines in most of the major domestic airports and routes decreased. 3) In the international market, East Asia and Southeast Asia are areas where the three major airlines have focused. Their navigation airports, flights, and competing airports are mostly located here. In particular, Japan and South Korea are the countries of most severe competition of the three major airlines. However, the competition of the three major airlines in the international flight routes is not obvious—this is because they mainly set up routes between their hub airports and international airports, and their operating bases are very different.

Key words: airlines, flight frequency, market competition, spatial structure, China