地理科学进展 ›› 2020, Vol. 39 ›› Issue (1): 120-131.doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2020.01.012

• 研究综述 • 上一篇    下一篇

应对气候变化的城市规划实施效应评估研究

谢正辉1,2, 刘斌1,2, 延晓冬3, 孟春雷4, 徐宪立5, 刘宇6, 秦佩华1, 贾炳浩1, 谢瑾博1, 李锐超1,2, 王龙欢1,2, 王妍1,2, 陈思1,2   

  1. 1. 中国科学院大气物理研究所大气科学和地球流体力学数值模拟国家重点实验室,北京100029
    2. 中国科学院大学,北京100049
    3. 北京师范大学地表过程与资源生态国家重点实验室,北京100875
    4. 中国气象局北京城市气象研究所,北京100089
    5. 中国科学院亚热带农业生态研究所,长沙410125
    6. 中国科学院科技战略咨询研究院,北京100190
  • 收稿日期:2019-03-04 修回日期:2019-07-28 出版日期:2020-01-28 发布日期:2020-03-28
  • 作者简介:谢正辉(1963— ),男,博士,研究员,研究方向为陆面过程模式发展。E-mail: zxie@lasg.iap.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(A类)(XDA23090102);国家自然科学基金重点项目(41830967);中国科学院前沿科学重点研究计划(QYZDY-SSW-DQC012)

Effects of implementation of urban planning in response to climate change

XIE Zhenghui1,2, LIU Bin1,2, YAN Xiaodong3, MENG Chunlei4, XU Xianli5, LIU Yu6, QIN Peihua1, JIA Binghao1, XIE Jinbo1, LI Ruichao1,2, WANG Longhuan1,2, WANG Yan1,2, CHEN Si1,2   

  1. 1. State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, CAS, Beijing100029, China
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing100049, China
    3. State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing100875, China
    4. Institute of Urban Meteorology, China Meteorological Administration, Beijing 100089, China
    5. Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, CAS, Changsha 410125, China
    6. Institute of Science and Development, CAS, Beijing100190, China
  • Received:2019-03-04 Revised:2019-07-28 Online:2020-01-28 Published:2020-03-28
  • Supported by:
    Strategic Priority Research Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences(XDA23090102);Key Project of National Natural Science Foundation of China(41830967);Key Research Program of Frontier Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences(QYZDY-SSW-DQC012)

摘要:

伴随气候变化与快速城市化,超大城市与城市群高温、暴雨、雾霾极端灾害事件频繁,生态环境问题愈加突出。应对气候变化的城市规划是缓解与适应极端事件的重要手段,它通过优化土地利用、空间结构、道路交通和生态绿化,减缓气候变化与极端事件影响。论文总结了城市规划实施对气候与环境的影响机制,及其实施效应的评估方法,由此将应对气候变化的城市规划问题归结为极端事件指标、经济可行性、区域适用性等多被控变量、多目标、多约束最优化问题的求解。为此亟需基于气候环境与社会经济的协同作用,开展超大城市和城市群的气候变化影响和适应研究,改进应对气候变化城市规划实施效应的评估手段,构建包含城市规划实施效应的区域气候模式系统和多尺度综合评估体系,以实现气候环境最优及社会经济代价最小的绿色智慧韧性发展策略。

关键词: 城市规划, 气候变化, 综合效应, 陆面过程与区域气候模式

Abstract:

With the changing climate and rapid urban development, megacities and urban agglomerations suffer from frequent extreme weathers caused by high temperature and heavy rain and haze, and ecological and environmental problems become increasingly more prominent. Urban planning in response to climate change is an important means to reduce the negative influence of urban climate, environment, and extreme events, through optimization of land use, spatial structure, road traffic, and greening of urban spaces. This article summarizes the impact mechanisms of urban planning implementation on the climate and the environment and examines the evaluation methods of urban planning implementation effects. In consideration of making urban planning in respond to climate change, we put forward a viewpoint to solving optimization problems with multiple controls, objectives, and constraints based on extreme events index, economic feasibility, and regional applicability. We maintain that it is urgent to conduct impact and adaptation research on urban climate change based on the interactions of climate, environment, and social economic systems, including improving the evaluation methods and constructing the multi-scale integrated assessment system of urban planning effects, in order to realize the green, smart, and resilient urban development strategy with the optimal climate environment and the minimum social and economic costs.

Key words: urban planning, climate change, integrated evaluation, land surface and climate model