地理科学进展 ›› 2019, Vol. 38 ›› Issue (7): 1103-1110.doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2019.07.014

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    

居住区环境与噪音污染对居民心理健康的影响——以北京为例

李春江1(), 马静2, 柴彦威1,*(), 关美宝3   

  1. 1. 北京大学城市与环境学院,北京 100871
    2. 北京师范大学地理科学学部,北京 100875
    3. 香港中文大学地理与资源管理系,香港 999077
  • 收稿日期:2018-12-12 修回日期:2019-03-01 出版日期:2019-07-28 发布日期:2019-07-28
  • 通讯作者: 柴彦威 E-mail:lcjiang@pku.edu.cn;chyw@pku.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:

    李春江(1995— ),男,广西南宁人,硕士生,主要从事城市社会地理、环境污染与健康研究。E-mail: lcjiang@pku.edu.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41529101, 41601148, 41571144)

Influence of neighborhood environment and noise pollution on residents’ mental health in Beijing

Chunjiang LI1(), Jing MA2, Yanwei CHAI1,*(), Mei-Po KWAN3   

  1. 1. College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
    2. Faculty of Geographical Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
    3. Department of Geography and Resource Management, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong 999077, China
  • Received:2018-12-12 Revised:2019-03-01 Online:2019-07-28 Published:2019-07-28
  • Contact: Yanwei CHAI E-mail:lcjiang@pku.edu.cn;chyw@pku.edu.cn
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No. 41529101, 41601148 and 41571144.

摘要:

心理健康作为当代城市居民面临的主要问题之一,已有研究证实居住区建成环境和社会环境对心理健康的影响。然而,此类研究主要聚焦于西方发达国家,而且对于噪音污染因素考虑不足,未能同时研究居住区环境和噪音污染对居民心理健康的影响。论文基于2017年北京市26个居住区居民的健康问卷调查数据,采用多层Logistic模型,探讨居住区环境(包括建成环境及社会环境)与居民感知的多种来源的噪音污染(包括道路交通噪音、轨道交通噪音、商店餐饮噪音和住房装修噪音)等多种因素与居民心理健康的相关关系。研究发现,居住区环境和噪音污染水平均与居民心理健康显著相关。与西方发达国家居住区环境与心理健康关系的研究类似,论文发现居住区医疗设施和休闲娱乐设施可达性、居民邻里关系、居住区满意度等因素与心理健康显著相关;不同的是,论文发现公园可达性、居住区交通噪音等因素与心理健康相关性不显著。此外,本文发现住房装修噪音是影响北京居民心理健康的主要噪音来源。

关键词: 居住区环境, 噪音污染, 自评心理健康, 多层模型, 北京

Abstract:

Mental health has become one of the main health challenges that urban residents are facing in today's society. Previous research has proven that neighborhood built and social environments can influence mental health. However, related research was mainly focused on Western developed countries. Furthermore, previous research paid little attention to noise pollution and failed to consider the influences of neighborhood environment and noise pollution together. This may be one of the reasons that the results of previous research are inconsistent. Based on the health survey data of urban residents conducted in 2017 in 26 communities in Beijing, this study used a multilevel Logistic model to investigate the relationships between neighborhood environment (including built environment and social environment) and perceived noise pollution from various sources (including road traffic noise, railway and subway noise, store and restaurant noise, and housing renovation noise) and residents' mental health. The results show that residents' mental health is significantly affected by both the neighborhood environment and noise pollution level. As for neighborhood built environment, distance to main roads, which indicates traffic volume, as well as accessibility to health services and sports and recreational facilities, are significantly correlated with mental health. However, distance to public parks shows no significant relationship with residents' mental health. According to previous research, accessibility to parks is not equal to the actual use of them, and the latter relates to mental health more directly. In terms of neighborhood social environment, consistent with previous research, the number of greeting neighbors is positively correlated with mental health. Besides, neighborhood satisfaction also shows positive and significant association with mental health. The result suggests that it is necessary to promote community belongingness, neighborhood satisfaction, and social networks of residents through a variety of community activities and campaigns, in order to maintain mental health. Perception of trust and safety of neighborhoods show no significant association with mental health. Finally, housing renovation noise shows significant relationship with mental health, while other noise sources like road traffic, railways and subways, and stores and restaurants show no significant association with mental health. This result indicates that housing renovation noise has become the main source of noise affecting the mental health of Beijing residents, and it also reflects the rapid urban transition and large-scale mobility that happened in Beijing. Compared with previous research, this study combined neighborhood built and social environments as well as different sources of noise pollution to give a more comprehensive understanding on their influences on residents' mental health. This article also tried to explain the results in the context of rapid urban transition in China and to enrich the research findings for developing countries. However, there are still many areas in which more research is needed.

Key words: neighborhood environment, noise pollution, self-reported mental health, multilevel model, Beijing