地理科学进展 ›› 2019, Vol. 38 ›› Issue (6): 807-817.doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2019.06.002

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

建成环境对步行通勤通学的影响——以中国香港为例

刘吉祥1(), 周江评1, 肖龙珠2,*(), 杨林川1   

  1. 1. 香港大学建筑学院,香港 999077
    2. 香港城市大学工学院,香港 999077
  • 收稿日期:2018-10-18 修回日期:2019-03-21 出版日期:2019-06-28 发布日期:2019-06-27
  • 通讯作者: 肖龙珠 E-mail:u3004679@hku.hk;xiaolongzhuu@163.com
  • 作者简介:

    第一作者简介:刘吉祥(1989— ),男,湖南娄底人,博士生,主要从事城市健康地理与交通出行研究。E-mail: u3004679@hku.hk

  • 基金资助:
    香港大学基础研究种子基金项目(201711159217)

Effects of the built environment on pedestrian communing to work and school: The Hong Kong case, China

Jixiang LIU1(), Jiangping ZHOU1, Longzhu XIAO2,*(), Linchuan YANG1   

  1. 1. Faculty of Architecture, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong 999077, China
    2. College of Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong 999077, China
  • Received:2018-10-18 Revised:2019-03-21 Online:2019-06-28 Published:2019-06-27
  • Contact: Longzhu XIAO E-mail:u3004679@hku.hk;xiaolongzhuu@163.com
  • Supported by:
    Seed Fund for Basic Research, the University of Hong Kong, No. 201711159217.

摘要:

步行是一种重要的交通方式,也是体力活动的重要组成部分。然而,现代城市居民步行频率持续下降,相应地带来体力活动水平的持续降低,伴随着肥胖等慢性非传染病广泛蔓延,值得警惕。西方很多研究证实了建成环境(常以“3D”或“5D”等模型刻画)对步行行为的影响。基于西方的结论对于中国香港、北京和上海等具有与西方城市大相迥异的建成环境的城市是否适用?不同的人群由于具有不同的社会经济属性和生活节奏、习惯,其步行行为受建成环境的影响在方向、强度上是否存在差异?为解决上述问题,论文以香港为案例地,以职员和学生2类人群的步行通勤通学行为为研究对象,利用香港人口普查数据、Open Street Map数据以及中原地图数据等,采用传统的线性回归和空间计量模型进行分析,发现:①通勤通学距离是影响职员和学生步行通勤通学行为的最重要变量;②以“5D”模型刻画的建成环境对香港居民步行通勤通学行为的影响,与西方情境下的结论存在一定的差异,如,在香港,距地铁站的距离与职员和学生步行通勤比例相关性均不显著;③建成环境对步行通勤通学行为的影响,在职员与学生两类人群之间在方向和强度上存在显著差异。例如人口密度与职员步行通勤比例负相关,但与学生步行通学比例正相关。研究凸显了在“建成环境-交通行为”关系研究中情境(context)和人群区分(segmentation)的重要性。

关键词: 建成环境, 步行通勤通学, 职员, 学生, 公交依赖城市, 香港

Abstract:

Walking is not only an important and convenient travel mode but also a primary component of physical activities. However, in the modern era that is characterized by fast pace of living, urban people, especially those facing relatively intense time constraints such as office workers and students, tend to walk increasingly less. This has led to a reduced level of physical activity and partially resulted in widespread prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) such as obesity and diabetes. There have been many studies in the Western contexts confirming the significant impacts of the built environment (usually depicted by the 3D or 5D model) on walking. However, existing research is incomplete in the following two aspects: on the one hand, the current conclusions have been mainly based on the Western contexts, and therefore their applicability in cities of rapidly developing countries such as China is understudied. On the other hand, different population subgroups—for example, office workers and students—are featured with different lifestyles and habits. Thus, a research question arises: does the built environment affect their walking behavior in the same manner with regard to direction and magnitude? To address the aforementioned research gaps, this study examined and compared the impacts of the built environment on office workers' and students' pedestrian commuting in Hong Kong. Multivariate linear regression models and spatial econometric models were employed based on the 2011 Hong Kong Census data, Hong Kong Tertiary Planning Units (TPU) data, Open Street Map data, and CentaMap data. We found that: 1) Commuting distance is the strongest determinant of office workers' or students' probability of walking to workplaces or schools. 2) The associations between the built environment in Hong Kong (delineated by the 5D model, namely, density, diversity, design, destination accessibility, and distance to transit) and pedestrian commuting behavior of office workers and students are different from those in the Western contexts. For example, distance to transit is widely confirmed to significantly impact people's walking in Western countries. However, the variable is insignificantly associated with workers' or students' propensity of pedestrian commuting in Hong Kong. 3) There are apparent differences between the effects of the built environment on pedestrian commuting propensity of office workers and students. For example, population density is associated with office workers' and students' propensity of pedestrian commuting negatively and positively, respectively. This study highlights the importance of contexts and population differentiation in the built environment-travel behavior association research. Geographers, urban planners, public policy practitioners, and policymakers can draw on the findings of this study to make more informed and targeted interventions to mitigate physical inactivity for certain population groups. Further study can pay more attention to 1) impacts of the built environment surrounding a workplace/school and/or those of routes from home to workplace/school on pedestrian commuting behavior; and 2) the increasing differences between the built environment of Hong Kong and cities in the mainland of China and the underlying mechanisms of variation.

Key words: built environment, pedestrian commuting, office worker, student, transit-dependent city, Hong Kong