地理科学进展 ›› 2019, Vol. 38 ›› Issue (3): 452-464.doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2019.03.014

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    

基于UCMap的城市环境气候空间格局分析——以广州市为例

赵文博1(), 刘洪杰1,*(), 田雪婷1,2, 李宝林2, 曹伟宏3   

  1. 1. 华南师范大学地理科学学院,广州 510631
    2. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101
    3. 华北理工大学建筑工程学院,河北 唐山 063200
  • 收稿日期:2018-04-20 修回日期:2018-10-09 出版日期:2019-03-28 发布日期:2019-03-28
  • 通讯作者: 刘洪杰 E-mail:zhaowb@m.scnu.edu.cn;jack@scnu.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:

    第一作者简介:赵文博(1993— ),男,满族,宁夏银川人,硕士生,主要从事景观生态规划研究。E-mail: zhaowb@m.scnu.edu.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金创新群体项目(41421001);河北省教育厅重点项目(SD181061)

Environmental climate spatial pattern of Guangzhou City based on urban climatic map

Wenbo ZHAO1(), Hongjie LIU1,*(), Xueting TIAN1,2, Baolin LI2, Weihong CAO3   

  1. 1. School of Geography, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631, China
    2. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    3. School of Architecture and Engineering, North China University of Technology, Tangshan 063200, Hebei, China
  • Received:2018-04-20 Revised:2018-10-09 Online:2019-03-28 Published:2019-03-28
  • Contact: Hongjie LIU E-mail:zhaowb@m.scnu.edu.cn;jack@scnu.edu.cn
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No. 41421001;Key Projects of the Department of Education of Hebei Province, China, No. SD181061.

摘要:

城市化的不断深入使城市下垫面发生改变,自然景观的大幅减少与人工建筑的大规模增加,给城市气候与环境带来了巨大影响。城市环境气候图作为分析与调控城市环境气候、评估城市环境气候状况的工具与平台,拓展了城市气候信息在城市规划与发展中的应用。针对目前中国华南地区城市环境气候研究缺乏多要素图层、多技术方法综合分析的现状,充分考虑到不同要素对环境气候影响程度的差异,论文结合已有的城市环境气候图的编制方法,选择典型亚热带季风气候特征的广州市为研究区域,构建了多环境要素、多评估时段、多技术方法的复杂下垫面城市环境气候图系统,利用专业气象插值、遥感反演、GIS空间分析等多种技术手段,对广州市空气质量、热负荷与通风潜力进行分析评估。结果表明:广州空气质量和热负荷具有明显的季节和空间差异性,通风潜力的空间差异性明显而季节变化微弱。通过进一步叠加分析各环境要素,将广州环境气候划分为7种类型,其中最适宜类型主要分布于北部山区林地与城间耕地,最不适宜类型位于天河、越秀、荔湾的城市核心区以及白云、增城的工业密集区,形成“北优南劣”的环境气候空间格局。最后,以环境气候分析结果为基础,提出各气候类型所在区域的简要规划措施,为广州市的可持续发展提供科学建议与建设方向。

关键词: 空气质量, 热负荷, 通风潜力, 环境气候空间格局, 广州市

Abstract:

With the development of urbanization, the underlying land surface of urban areas also changes. The greatly declined natural landscape and increased number of buildings have significance influence on the urban climate and environment. Urban Climatic Map, a tool and platform for analyzing and evaluating the situation of urban climate, expands the application of urban climate information in urban planning and development. Based on the current situation in southern China for urban climate research, this study examined the difference of environment climate influence level caused by different factors. Combined with the existing compilation method of Urban Climatic Map, Guangzhou City was selected as the study area because of its typical subtropical monsoon climate characteristics. A complex underlying surface urban climatic map system was constructed with multiple environmental factors, assessment periods, and technical methods. Several technical means, including numerical model simulation, remote-sensing inversion, and spatial analysis in GIS, were comprehensively applied to evaluation urban air pollution, thermal load, and ventilation potential in Guangzhou City. We also put forward some preliminary planning recommendations. The results indicate that air pollution and thermal load are characterized by significant differences in seasonal and spatial distribution, while ventilation potential shows a clear difference in space and slight seasonal change. Guangzhou City is subsequently divided into seven zones and a spatial pattern of "superior north and inferior south" is observed. Specifically, the optimum types are mainly distributed in the woodlands and intercity cultivated land in the northern mountainous areas, and the most degraded types are located in the urban core areas of Tianhe, Yuexiu, and Liwan Districts, as well as the industrial areas in Baiyun and Zengcheng Districts. Finally, based on the results of environmental climatic analysis, planning measures of each climatic type are suggested to provide some scientific advices and direction for the sustainable development of Guangzhou City.

Key words: air quality, thermal load, ventilation potential, environmental climate spatial pattern, Guangzhou City