地理科学进展 ›› 2019, Vol. 38 ›› Issue (3): 441-451.doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2019.03.013

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于虚拟城市模型的城市形态对污水系统影响研究

梁珊1(), 邓羽2, 贾宁1, 刘毅1,*()   

  1. 1. 清华大学环境学院,北京 100084
    2. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101
  • 收稿日期:2018-05-04 修回日期:2019-01-10 出版日期:2019-03-28 发布日期:2019-03-28
  • 通讯作者: 刘毅 E-mail:caulsjy@163.com;yi.liu@tsinghua.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:

    第一作者简介:梁珊(1993— ),女,陕西宝鸡人,硕士生,城市空间形态与污水系统关系研究。E-mail: caulsjy@163.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金面上项目(71473148);“十二五”水体污染控制与治理重大科技专项城市主题集成课题(2014ZX07323001)

Impact of urban morphology on sewage systems based on a virtual city modeling approach

Shan LIANG1(), Yu DENG2, Ning JIA1, Yi LIU1,*()   

  1. 1. School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
    2. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
  • Received:2018-05-04 Revised:2019-01-10 Online:2019-03-28 Published:2019-03-28
  • Contact: Yi LIU E-mail:caulsjy@163.com;yi.liu@tsinghua.edu.cn
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No. 71473148;"12th Five-Year" Major Science and Technology Program for Water Pollution Control and Treatment: "Integration of Urban Water Pollution Control And Water Treatment Technology", No. 2014ZX07323001.

摘要:

城市形态与污水设施的运行之间关系密切,探讨城市形态对城市内污水设施的影响对解决现有设施存在的水力失效及未来情景应对能力欠佳等问题具有重要价值。因此,论文测算了现阶段中国地级城市的城市形态,设置了城市形态情景和排水情景,使用Kruscal算法进行管网定线、SWMM软件模拟系统性能,构建自上而下的虚拟城市空间与污水系统耦合模型,探索了不同形态城市的污水系统生命周期成本、结构和性能的一般性规律,构建了系统经济性、有效性和适应性指标体系以综合评估城市污水系统。研究发现,在城市人口36.24万、面积35 km2的规模下,污水系统的生命周期成本约为6亿~7亿元。方形、长条形和星形的流速失效比分别为0.55、0.67、0.55,充满度失效比分别为0.35、0.42、0.36。在排水情景改变下,污水量变小时,系统流速失效情况均更为严重,而充满度失效情况均有所改善;当污水量变大时,流速失效情况均有所改善,而充满度失效情况更为严重。分析系统结构特性,发现越分散的污水系统连通性越好,长条形城市的污水系统相较于方形和星形城市更为集中。对指标作相关性分析,发现越分散的污水系统经济性和有效性更好,但适应性更差。从系统经济性和有效性角度出发,方形和星形城市更有利。从污水系统适应性角度出发,长条形城市优于方形和星形城市,结合2010—2015年的城市形态分析,长条→长条(变化前后城市形态均为长条形,以此类推)、星形→长条、方形→长条的86个城市的城市发展方向不够合理,各城市在未来扩建或新建规划中应在因地制宜基础上考虑内部污水设施,选择合理的城市形态。

关键词: 虚拟城市, 污水系统, 城市形态, 排水情景, 综合评估

Abstract:

Urban sewage systems in China have been developing rapidly in recent years, with problems of system hydraulic failure in peak period, challenge from change of drainage scenario caused by population change, climate change, and water saving behavior; and urban form is closely related to the operation of urban facilities. This study set up urban morphology scenarios and drainage scenarios, built a top-down virtual model of urban space and sewage system, used Kruscal algorithm for network routing and SWMM software for system simulation, and sampled a large number of sewage system solutions, to explore life cycle cost, structure, and operation of urban sewage systems, and assess urban sewage systems with regard to economic performance, effectiveness, and adaptability. The study found that life cycle cost is about 600-700 million yuan for the city. The velocity failure rate of square, rectangular, and star-shaped cities is 0.55, 0.67, and 0.55 respectively, and the capacity failure rate is 0.35, 0.42, and 0.36. Under the low discharge sewage scenario, velocity failure of the system turns more serious, and capacity failure of the system is improved. Under the high discharge sewage scenario, velocity failure is improved, but capacity failure is more serious. More dispersed sewage systems have better connectedness and the sewage system of rectangular city is more centralized than the square and star-shaped cities. Correlation analysis showed that the more dispersed sewage system is more economical and effective, but the adaptability is worse. Finally, from the perspective of system economy and effectiveness, square and star-shaped cities perform better. With regard to the adaptability of sewage system, rectangular city is superior to square and star-shaped cities. Based on the urban forms of the 86 Chinese urban areas examined in this study, the development trend is unreasonable. It is hoped that the conclusion can provide some reference for future urban planning and urban form management.

Key words: virtual city, sewage system, urban form, drainage scenario, comprehensive evaluation