地理科学进展 ›› 2019, Vol. 38 ›› Issue (3): 395-406.doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2019.03.009

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

苹果手机零部件全球价值链的价值分配与中国角色演变

康江江1,2(), 张凡1,2,*(), 宁越敏1,2   

  1. 1. 华东师范大学中国现代城市研究中心,上海 200062
    2. 华东师范大学城市与区域科学学院,上海200241
  • 收稿日期:2018-07-24 修回日期:2019-01-17 出版日期:2019-03-28 发布日期:2019-03-28
  • 通讯作者: 张凡 E-mail:kangjiang0521@163.com;fzhang@re.ecnu.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:

    第一作者简介:康江江(1989— ),男,山西吕梁人,博士生,主要从事城市地理与产业发展研究。E-mail: kangjiang0521@163.com

  • 基金资助:
    教育部人文社会科学重点研究基地重大项目(17JJD790007);国家自然科学基金青年项目(41701181, 41701192)

Value allocation and China’s evolving role in the global value chains of iPhone parts

Jiangjiang KANG1,2(), Fan ZHANG1,2,*(), Yuemin NING1,2   

  1. 1. The Center for Modern Chinese City Studies, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062, China
    2. School of Urban and Regional Science, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241, China
  • Received:2018-07-24 Revised:2019-01-17 Online:2019-03-28 Published:2019-03-28
  • Contact: Fan ZHANG E-mail:kangjiang0521@163.com;fzhang@re.ecnu.edu.cn
  • Supported by:
    Key Project of Key Research Institute of Humanities and Social Sciences at Universities, Ministry of Education, No. 17JJD790007;National Natural Science Foundation of China, No. 41701181 and 41701192.

摘要:

产品内分工已成为支配当代企业分工与产品生产的重要模式。研究智能手机生产网络价值分配格局,对辨析中国大陆企业在移动通讯产业价值链中所处地位与演进具有重要意义。论文利用2012—2017年苹果公司供应商数据,以其零部件价值含量与技术要求为测度标准,分析了苹果手机零部件全球价值链的分配特征以及中国大陆企业在其中的地位变化。发现:高价值环节的供应商主要以美国、日本、韩国为主,而中低价值环节则以中国台湾、日本和中国大陆供应商为主,且中国大陆与中国台湾在中间环节占据重要地位。处于价值链高端的供应商分支数量在中国大陆和美国缩减明显,日本、韩国较为稳定,中国台湾增加明显。在价值链的中低端环节,供应商分支趋向中国大陆集中。印度、巴西以及越南等地成为新的中低端价值环节转移承接地。近年来,中国大陆在苹果手机价值链的高端环节得到了提升,长三角、珠三角、京津冀、成渝、中原地区等地逐渐形成了苹果供应商分支的集聚区域,呈现出零部件生产的区域分工特征。长三角(上海-苏州为核心)与珠三角(深圳-东莞为核心),承接了价值链多个生产环节,是中国大陆嵌入苹果手机生产网络的主要阵地。成渝地区既承接了芯片类企业布局,也承接了价值链低端的组装代工和包装服务环节,呈现出在价值链两端双向承接的特征。环渤海、福建及湖南等地主要承接苹果手机价值链的中间环节,而中原地区主要以苹果手机组装与包装服务为主,承接价值链的低端环节。最后,论文从创新驱动、政府作用与外资等方面探讨了影响中国大陆地位提升的因素。

关键词: 价值分配, 全球价值链, 苹果手机零部件, 中国

Abstract:

Based on the data of Apple suppliers from 2012 to 2017, this study conducted an empirical analysis of the global value chains of iPhone parts, and the changing role of Chinese enterprises according to the cost value of different parts of mobile phone. The conclusions are as follows: Firstly, suppliers of the key parts were mainly located in the United States, Japan, and South Korea, and they were in the core of value chain governance; while the important and general components were mainly from Japan and Chinese mainland and Taiwan, China. Secondly, the production of most parts was completed in Chinese mainland and Southeast Asia. In recent years, Chinese mainland's status of the "world factory" for general parts of iPhone has been further consolidated, but at the same time, breakthroughs have been made in some important links of the value chains, and Chinese mainland has gradually moved to the high end of the value chain. Thirdly, the Yangtze River Delta, the Pearl River Delta, the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, the Chengdu-Chongqing region, and the Central Plains have become the core production base of iPhone's components. iPhone parts industrial clusters have been formed in the Yangtze River Delta and the Pearl River Delta, and they have become the main base for Chinese mainland's enterprises to embed in iPhone's global value chain. The Chengdu-Chongqing region is not only the base for chip companies, but also the location for assemblying and packaging services at the low end of the value chain, which indicates the two-way acceptance at both ends of the value chain. The regions around the Bohai Bay, Fujian Province, Hunan Province, and some other places mainly carry on the production of the medium part of the value chain, while the Central Plains mainly carry on the production of the mobile phone assembly and packaging services. Finally, we analyzed the driving factors that upgraded Chinese mainland's status in the global value chains.

Key words: distribution pattern of value, global value chain, iPhone parts, China