地理科学进展 ›› 2019, Vol. 38 ›› Issue (3): 357-369.doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2019.03.006

• 研究综述 • 上一篇    下一篇

城市建成环境对居民身体活动的影响研究进展与启示

姜玉培1,2(), 甄峰1,2,*(), 王文文1,2, 赵梦妮1,2   

  1. 1. 南京大学建筑与城市规划学院,南京210093
    2. 江苏省智慧城市设计仿真与可视化技术工程实验室,南京210093
  • 收稿日期:2018-05-14 修回日期:2019-01-07 出版日期:2019-03-28 发布日期:2019-03-28
  • 通讯作者: 甄峰 E-mail:jiangyupeidl@126.com;zhenfeng@nju.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:

    第一作者简介:姜玉培(1987— ),女,安徽阜阳人,博士生,研究方向为健康地理。E-mail: jiangyupeidl@126.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41571146)

Influence of urban built environment on residents’ physical activity: Review and implications

Yupei JIANG1,2(), Feng ZHEN1,2,*(), Wenwen WANG1,2, Mengni ZHAO1,2   

  1. 1. School of Architecture and Urban Planning, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China
    2. Jiangsu Provincial Engineering Laboratory of Smart City Design Simulation & Visualization, Nanjing 210093, China;
  • Received:2018-05-14 Revised:2019-01-07 Online:2019-03-28 Published:2019-03-28
  • Contact: Feng ZHEN E-mail:jiangyupeidl@126.com;zhenfeng@nju.edu.cn
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No. 41571146.

摘要:

城市建成环境与身体活动关系是城市系统人地关系在健康领域的一种现实表现,两者之间的良性互动关乎城市公共健康的发展与管理水平,是健康地理学新近研究热点。论文基于地理学空间视角,从空间组织、空间格局、空间功能3个维度论述了国内外城市建成环境对居民身体活动影响的研究进展。结果表明,国外研究取得了诸多成果:① 理论与方法上,社会生态理论应用最为广泛,不断被修正和拓展。而基于移动-活动行为理论的建成环境与身体活动关系研究日益成为新视角。同时,一些复杂计量回归模型、空间回归模型得到较多应用。② 实证研究上,重点关注城市建成环境空间组织、空间格局、空间功能一系列特性对不同人群身体活动水平、类型的影响。空间组织上主要集中在交通组织、绿地网络等组织类型,以及可达性、连通性等空间联系的影响研究。空间格局上强调能级差异下建成环境要素集聚多寡,空间外部几何形态表征、指示对身体活动产生的相应影响研究。空间功能上多探究混合性、单一功能构成和主客观功能品质的影响研究。国内相关研究主要集中在地理学、城市规划学、体育学等领域,尚处于初步介绍国外相关研究成果和少量实证研究阶段,缺少基于本土的理论提升及典型案例研究。最后,论文从理论、方法、实证上探讨地理学视角下未来研究重点:基于“天人合一”理念的理论提升;基于多源数据融合和时空计量的研究新方法;基于虚实交互空间和本土语境下的实证研究。

关键词: 建成环境, 身体活动, 城市空间, 影响机制, 公共健康

Abstract:

The relationship between the built environment and urban residents' physical activity is a reflection of the human-environment relationship of urban systems in the field of health, and is related to the development and management of urban public health. In recent years, such relationship has become a new research topic in health geography. Based on the spatial perspective of geography, the progress of research on the influence of urban built environment on residents' physical activity in China and internationally was examined from the three aspects of spatial organization, spatial pattern, and spatial function. The analysis shows that there are many achievements internationally: 1) Social-ecological system research methods are most widely applied and are constantly revised and expanded in theory. Besides, studies based on the theory of mobility and activity behavior are emerging. Some complicated statistical regression models and spatial regression models are gradually applied. 2) In existing studies, the analysis of the influence of a series of characteristics of urban built environment, such as spatial organization, spatial pattern, and spatial function, on the level and type of physical activity of different resident groups has received more attention. Among these, the influence of spatial organization mainly concerns traffic organization, green space network, and other organizational types, as well as the impact of accessibility, connectivity, and other spatial links. The influences of spatial pattern such as structure, form, and spatial function were also examined. However, the research within China is still focusing on introducing international studies and concentrated in a few disciplines such as geography, urban planning, and sports, and lacks theoretical development and case studies in the Chinese context. Therefore, future research should focus on the following: theoretical development based on the ideas of unity of human and nature; application of multi-source data and spatial statistical methods; and new empirical studies based on virtual reality interaction and local context.

Key words: built environment, physical activity, urban space, mechanism of influence, public health