地理科学进展 ›› 2019, Vol. 38 ›› Issue (2): 271-282.doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2019.02.010

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

1990—2014年印度城市扩张时空特征对比分析

熊瑶1(), 潘润秋1,2,*(), 许刚1, 焦利民1,2, 李凯3   

  1. 1. 武汉大学资源与环境科学学院,武汉430079
    2. 武汉大学地理信息系统教育部重点实验室,武汉430079
    3. 中建三局集团有限公司,武汉430073
  • 收稿日期:2018-04-03 修回日期:2018-10-11 出版日期:2019-02-28 发布日期:2019-02-28
  • 通讯作者: 潘润秋 E-mail:xiongy0@whu.edu.cn;478622375@qq.com
  • 作者简介:

    第一作者简介:熊瑶(1991— ),男,江西丰城人,硕士生,主要从事土地资源评价与城市扩张研究。E-mail: xiongy0@whu.edu.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41571385)

A comparison of spatial and temporal characteristics of urban expansion in India during 1990-2014

Yao XIONG1(), Runqiu PAN1,2,*(), Gang XU1, Limin JIAO1,2, Kai LI3   

  1. 1. School of Resource and Environmental Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079, China
    2. Key Laboratory of Geographic Information System, Ministry of Education, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079, China
    3. The Third Bureau of China State Construction Engineering Corporation, Wuhan 430073, China
  • Received:2018-04-03 Revised:2018-10-11 Online:2019-02-28 Published:2019-02-28
  • Contact: Runqiu PAN E-mail:xiongy0@whu.edu.cn;478622375@qq.com
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No. 41571385.

摘要:

印度是人口仅次于中国的发展中国家,也是“一带一路”倡议的重要节点。印度正处于城市化快速发展阶段,分析印度城市化特征具有重要意义,而中国国内关于印度城市化和城市扩张的研究和报道相对较少。论文选取10个人口超过100万的印度城市,获取1990、2000和2014年基于Landsat影像的土地利用数据和人口数据,采用圈层分析法将城市划分为等间距的同心圆圈层后统计各圈层内建设用地密度,选取增长率、密度、强度以及景观指数指标对印度城市扩张进行多维度对比分析。研究发现:①城市土地扩张快于人口增长,1990—2000、2000—2014年土地年均增长率分别是人口年均增长率的3.27和2.43倍。②建设用地密度随着与城市中心距离增加而衰减,且在一定距离内快速下降;同圈层内建设用地密度随时间逐渐增加;城市以分散的方式向外扩张,城市形态变得更加松散,特别是在第二阶段(2000—2014年)。③建设用地斑块破碎化程度与城市扩张强度的空间变化相吻合。城市扩张最活跃区域与景观破碎度最严重区域都随时间不断向外推进,城市扩张对景观格局产生显著影响。在全球城市扩张背景下,研究结果将为理解城市扩张时空特征而提供印度样本,也将为研究其他地区城市扩张提供分析方法和思路。

关键词: 城市扩张, 城市形态, 圈层分析, 景观破碎度, 印度

Abstract:

India is a developing country with a population only smaller than China, and is an important location of the Belt and Road Initiative. India is in the process of rapid urbanization and studying the urbanization characteristics of India is of great significance for understanding urban expansion globally. But within China there are relatively limited studies and reports on urbanization and urban expansion in India. In this study, we selected 10 Indian cities with more than 1 million people, and obtained the land use and population data of these cities based on the Landsat images in 1990, 2000, and 2014. The built-up density in each ring was calculated after the cities were divided into equidistant concentric rings by using the concentric ring analysis method. A multi-dimensional comparative analysis of urban expansion was conducted for these India cities through growth rate, density, intensity, and landscape indices. The results show that: 1) Urban land expansion is faster than population growth. The average annual growth rate of urban land is 3.27 and 2.43 times of the average annual growth rate of the population. 2) The density of urban land is decreasing with the distance from the city center and it quickly decreases within the urban core area. Temporally, urban land density gradually increases in the same concentric ring over time. Cities have expanded outwardly in a dispersed manner, and urban forms have become scattered, especially in the second period (2000-2014). 3) The degree of fragmentation of urban land is consistent with the spatial variation of urban expansion intensity. Areas with the most active urban expansion and the most severe landscape fragmentation shifted outward over time, and urban expansion has a significant impact on the landscape pattern. In the context of global urban expansion, this study provides an Indian sample for understanding the spatial and temporal characteristics of urban expansion and also provides analytical methods and ideas for studying urban expansion in other regions.

Key words: urban expansion, urban form, concentric analysis, landscape fragmentation, India