地理科学进展 ›› 2019, Vol. 38 ›› Issue (1): 88-100.doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2019.01.008

• 研究专题:京津冀协同发展 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于灯光数据的京津冀城市多标度异速分析

龙玉清(), 陈彦光*()   

  1. 北京大学城市与环境学院城市与经济地理系,北京 100871
  • 收稿日期:2018-03-21 修回日期:2018-08-12 出版日期:2019-01-28 发布日期:2019-01-22
  • 通讯作者: 陈彦光 E-mail:longyq@pku.edu.cn;chenyg@pku.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:

    第一作者简介:龙玉清(1995— ),女,湖南长沙人,博士研究生,主要从事城市结构与动力学研究。E-mail: longyq@pku.edu.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金重大项目(41590843)

Multi-scaling allometric analysis of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban system based on nighttime light data

Yuqing LONG(), Yanguang CHEN*()   

  1. Department of Urban and Economic Geography, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
  • Received:2018-03-21 Revised:2018-08-12 Online:2019-01-28 Published:2019-01-22
  • Contact: Yanguang CHEN E-mail:longyq@pku.edu.cn;chenyg@pku.edu.cn
  • Supported by:
    Major Program of the National Natural Science Foundation of China, No. 41590843.

摘要:

城镇体系的时空演化是一个复杂的动力学过程,具有无尺度性,其特征可以采用异速标度指数定量描述。论文以京津冀为例,基于1992—2013年夜间灯光数据的校正结果,提取城镇夜间灯光信息,采用多标度异速分析方法,分析京津冀城镇体系的相对发展特征及其空间分异格局。研究发现:①京津冀大城市的增长空间局限日益显著。虽然大城市如京津唐的绝对发展水平高,但接近环境承载量的极限,22 a间增长快速的是大城市交接地带的小城市(如三河、迁安、廊坊等)。②相对增长速度快的城市从东北到西南呈现带状分布——政府选择发展的“雄安新区”就在这个轴带上。由此可以得出两个结论:其一,京津冀城市演化的趋势相对均衡化,空间结构异质性逐步减弱,整个城镇体系的发展趋于相对平衡状态;其二,大、小城市“两极”贯通或许是增强城镇体系功能的有效途径。京津冀的空间格局优化不能仅仅考虑主要的、规模大的中心城市,而应该基于等级结构协调整个城镇网络体系。

关键词: 城镇体系, 夜间灯光数据, 异速标度, 分形, 分维, 京津冀

Abstract:

The spatial-temporal evolution of urban systems is a complex scale-free dynamic process, which can be described quantitatively by allometric scaling index. In this study, the multi-scaling allometric analysis method was employed to analyze the relative development characteristics and the spatial heterogeneity pattern of the main cities in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region based on the calibration results of the nighttime light data from 1992 to 2013. The main findings are as follows: 1) The limitations on spatial development of big cities in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region were increasing. Although the absolute development levels of big cities such as Beijing, Tianjin, and Tangshan were higher than medium-sized and small cities, large cities were close to the limit of environmental carrying capacity; smaller cities such as Sanhe, Qian'an, and Langfang had grown rapidly in the 22 years. 2) Cities with relatively high growth advantage show a zonal distribution from northeast to southwest. These small cities are located in the space between the big cities. Two principal conclusions can be drawn as below: 1) The trend of urban change in Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei is relatively balanced. Heterogeneity of the spatial structure has gradually weakened, and the development of the whole urban system tends to evolve into a relatively homogeneous state. 2) The key of spatial optimization in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region is to unify the two extremes of cites. The large cities with absolute high development levels and the small cities with relatively high growth rates should be integrated into a self-organized framework. The nighttime light data can be used to characterize the allometric scaling relations between elements of urban systems and to explain the formation mechanism of spatial heterogeneity.

Key words: urban system, nighttime light data, allometric scaling, fractal, fractal dimensions, Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region