地理科学进展 ›› 2019, Vol. 38 ›› Issue (1): 77-87.doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2019.01.007

• 研究专题:京津冀协同发展 • 上一篇    下一篇

京津冀城市用地形态的双分形特征及其演化

赵静湉(), 陈彦光*(), 李双成   

  1. 北京大学城市与环境学院城市与经济地理系,北京 100871
  • 收稿日期:2018-06-08 修回日期:2018-11-20 出版日期:2019-01-28 发布日期:2019-01-22
  • 通讯作者: 陈彦光 E-mail:zhaojingtian@pku.edu.cn;chenyg@pku.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:

    第一作者简介:赵静湉(1990— ),女,天津市人,硕士研究生,主要从事城市地理研究。E-mail: zhaojingtian@pku.edu.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金重大项目(41590843)

Bi-fractal structure and evolution of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region urban land-use patterns

Jingtian ZHAO(), Yanguang CHEN*(), Shuangcheng LI   

  1. Department of Urban and Economic Geography, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
  • Received:2018-06-08 Revised:2018-11-20 Online:2019-01-28 Published:2019-01-22
  • Contact: Yanguang CHEN E-mail:zhaojingtian@pku.edu.cn;chenyg@pku.edu.cn
  • Supported by:
    Major Program of National Natural Science Foundation of China, No. 41590843.

摘要:

区域城乡一体化的标志之一是城镇体系结构的一体化,这个过程可以从标度的角度进行描述和评价。分形是标度分析的重要方法,地理空间无尺度分布特征的典型参数是分维。论文以京津冀城镇体系为例,利用遥感图像的解译数据和人口普查数据开展分形分析、位序-规模分布分析和异速标度分析,用以解释1995—2013年间京津冀城镇体系演化的过程。结果表明,京津冀城镇体系及其演化的特征有:①京津冀空间结构和位序-规模分布都表现为自仿射双分形结构;②京津冀区域的城市人口-城区面积异速标度退化为假线性关系;③随着城镇体系的演化,自仿射的双分形结构逐步向自相似分形结构演化。由此得出结论:其一,京津冀城镇体系存在结构性的不协调因素。其空间结构和等级结构具有二元化特征,但演化方向却呈现内在结构一体化的显著趋势。其二,大城市用地不够集约。城市边缘区的无序扩张导致土地利用铺张浪费。地方政府和规划专家可以有意识地利用城镇体系演化的这种特征和趋势制定管理措施和优化规划方案。

关键词: 城市土地利用, 分形, 自仿射性, 位序-规模分布, 异速标度, 京津冀城镇体系

Abstract:

One of the indicators of regional integration of urban and rural areas is the integration of the structure of systems of cities and towns. This process can be described and evaluated using the concept of scaling. Fractal geometry is one of the powerful tools for scaling analysis. An important parameter of geographic spatial distribution characteristics is fractal dimension. Based on data derived from remote sensing images and census data, this study carried out fractal analysis, rank-size distribution analysis, and allometric scaling analysis of cities and urban system in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. The aim was to explain the process of urban growth in the region from 1995 to 2013. The results show three characteristics of urban form and growth: 1) Both the spatial structure and the rank-size distribution of the cities in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region are of self-affine pattern, indicating bi-fractal property. 2) The relationship between urban population and urban area of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region indicates a false linear correlation. 3) With the change of the urban system, the self-affine bi-fractal structure evolved gradually into a self-similar fractal structure. The main conclusions are as follows: 1) There is a structural incongruity in the system of cities and towns in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. The urban hierarchy takes on a dual structure, but the direction of urban change shows a significant trend of internal structure integration. 2) Land use in large cities is not intensive enough. The unordered expansion of urban fringe led to the waste of land resources. Planners and local governments should make use of the characteristics and trends of change of the urban system to formulate planning schemes and management measures.

Key words: urban land use, fractals, self-affinity, rank-size distribution, allometric scaling law, urban system of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region