地理科学进展 ›› 2018, Vol. 37 ›› Issue (12): 1713-1726.doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2018.12.013

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    

大城市居民自评健康与环境危害感知的空间差异及影响因素——基于郑州市区的实证研究

赵宏波1,2(), 冯渊博1, 董冠鹏1,3, 苗长虹1,2,*()   

  1. 1. 河南大学黄河文明与可持续发展研究中心暨黄河文明传承与现代文明建设河南省协同创新中心,河南 开封 475001
    2. 河南大学环境与规划学院,河南 开封 475001
    3. 英国利物浦大学地理与规划学院,英国 利物浦 L697ZQ
  • 收稿日期:2018-01-22 修回日期:2018-07-30 出版日期:2018-12-28 发布日期:2018-12-28
  • 通讯作者: 苗长虹 E-mail:zhaohbhhwm@163.com;chhmiao@henu.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:赵宏波(1985-),男,河南长垣人,副教授,硕士生导师,主要研究方向为经济地理与区域发展,E-mail: zhaohbhhwm@163.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41501128,41430637);中国博士后科学基金项目(2015M582181);河南省科技发展计划项目(172400410410, 182400410143)

Spatial differentiation and influencing factors of residents' self-rated health and environmental hazard perception: A case study of Zhengzhou City

Hongbo ZHAO1,2(), Yuanbo FENG1, Guanpeng DONG1,3, Changhong MIAO1,2,*()   

  1. 1. Key Research Institute of Yellow River Civilization and Sustainable Development & Collaborative Innovation Center on Yellow River Civilization of Henan Province, Henan University, Kaifeng 475001, Henan, China;
    2. College of Environment and Planning, Henan University, Kaifeng 475001, Henan, China
    3. Department of Geography and Planning, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L697ZQ, UK
  • Received:2018-01-22 Revised:2018-07-30 Online:2018-12-28 Published:2018-12-28
  • Contact: Changhong MIAO E-mail:zhaohbhhwm@163.com;chhmiao@henu.edu.cn
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41501128, No.41430637;China Postdoctoral Science Foundation, No.2015M582181;Science and Technology Development Plan Project of Henan Province, No.172400410410, No.182400410143

摘要:

环境污染与健康的研究一直受到世界各国的广泛关注。基于2016年郑州市区的大规模问卷调查,运用GIS空间分析技术、多元线性回归模型以及logistic回归模型等方法,研究微观尺度下居民健康与环境危害感知的空间分布,并探讨影响居民健康的关键因素。研究表明:①郑州市居民对自身健康状况的感知总体上处于中等水平,多数居民认为空气污染最严重,其次是噪声污染,垃圾污染与水污染相对较轻,但这4种环境污染均对居民健康状况具有显著影响。②居民健康感知的空间差异显著,呈现出明显的“中间低—外围高”的分布特征,即市中心的居民健康水平较低,而处于外围地区的居民健康水平较高。③不同社会经济属性个体对自身健康状况感知差异明显,随着年龄的增长对健康状况的感知越来越差,尤其是60岁以上的人群感知最差;高学历与高收入者认为自己健康状况很好或者非常好的比例远大于低学历与低收入者;性别与婚姻状况对健康感知的影响并不明显。④居住地到工作单位的距离越远,健康状况感知很好或者非常好的人数比例越低,街道区位也是影响居民感知自身健康状况的显著因素。研究结果可为郑州市制定更加公平、有效的环境健康政策提供科学依据。

关键词: 居民自评健康, 环境危害感知, 空间差异, 影响因素, 郑州市

Abstract:

Environmental pollution and health issues have aroused increasing concerns in the world. Based on a large-scale questionnaire survey in Zhengzhou City, Henan Province in 2016, this study examined the spatial differentiation and key influencing factors of self-rated health and perceived environmental hazards in the city on the micro-scale by using GIS spatial analysis technique, multiple linear regression model, and logistic regression model. The following conclusions can be drawn: (1) The perception of residents on own health was generally at a moderate level. The majority of the surveyed residents believed that air pollution was the most serious problem in Zhengzhou, followed by noise pollution and landfill and water pollution, but all four kinds of environmental pollution had a significant impact on the health of the residents. (2) The spatial differentiation of residents’ health perception was evident, which showed a clear pattern of low values in the core area and high values in the periphery, namely, the health levels in the central city regions were lower, while the suburban regions showed higher health levels. (3) Individuals with different socioeconomic status showed significant differences in their own health perception. Perception of health was getting worse for older people. In particular, the people over 60 years old had the worst perception of health conditions. The proportion of highly-educated and high-income people who considered their health as excellent or good was far greater than the proportion for poorly educated and low-income residents. The effects of gender and marital status on health perception were not obvious. The longer the distance between residence and workplace, the lower proportion of people who felt excellent or good with their health. Meanwhile, location of subdistricts had a remarkable effect on residents’ health perception. The aim of the study was to provide a scientific basis for more equal and effective policies on resident health in Zhengzhou City.

Key words: resident self-rated health, environmental hazard perception, spatial differentiation, influencing factors, Zhengzhou City