地理科学进展 ›› 2018, Vol. 37 ›› Issue (11): 1545-1554.doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2018.11.010

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

东帕米尔高原昆盖山跃动冰川遥感监测研究

张震1(), 刘时银2,3,4,*(), 魏俊锋5, 蒋宗立5   

  1. 1. 安徽理工大学测绘学院,安徽 淮南232001
    2. 云南省国际河流与跨境生态安全重点实验室,昆明650500
    3. 云南大学国际河流与生态安全研究院,昆明650500
    4. 中国科学院西北生态环境资源研究院冰冻圈科学国家重点实验室,兰州 730000
    5. 湖南科技大学资源环境与安全工程学院,湖南 湘潭 411201
  • 收稿日期:2017-11-26 修回日期:2018-09-21 出版日期:2018-11-28 发布日期:2018-11-28
  • 通讯作者: 刘时银 E-mail:zhangzhen@aust.edu.cn;shiyin.liu@ynu.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:张震(1988-),男,安徽太和人,博士,讲师,主要从事冰川遥感研究,E-mail: zhangzhen@aust.edu.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41701087,41471067,41501294);科技部科技基础性工作专项项目(2013FY111400);云南大学引进人才科研项目(YJRC3201702)

Monitoring a glacier surge in the Kungey Mountain, eastern Pamir Plateau using remote sensing

Zhen ZHANG1(), Shiyin LIU2,3,4,*(), Junfeng WEI5, Zongli JIANG5   

  1. 1. School of Geomatics, Anhui University of Science and Technology, Huainan 232001, Anhui, China
    2. Yunnan Key Laboratory of International Rivers and Transboundary Eco-Security, Kunming 650500, China
    3. Institute of International Rivers and Eco-Security, Yunnan University, Kunming 650500, China
    4. State Key Laboratory of Cryospheric Science, Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources, CAS, Lanzhou 730000, China
    5. School of Resource & Environment and Safety Engineering, Hunan University of Science and Technology, Xiangtan 411201, Hunan, China;
  • Received:2017-11-26 Revised:2018-09-21 Online:2018-11-28 Published:2018-11-28
  • Contact: Shiyin LIU E-mail:zhangzhen@aust.edu.cn;shiyin.liu@ynu.edu.cn
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41701087, No.41471067, No.41501294;Fundamental Program from the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (MOST), No.2013FY111400;Research Funds Provided to New Recruitments of Yunnan University, No.YJRC3201702

摘要:

冰川跃动是冰川周期性地快速运动,给下游生命财产安全带来巨大威胁。对已经发现的跃动冰川进行监测不仅有助于提高对冰川跃动机理的认识,而且对冰川跃动灾害预警预报和风险评估都具有重要的意义。在中国第二次冰川编目中发现,1963-2009年东帕米尔高原昆盖山的5Y663L0023冰川末端发生大幅前进。本文利用Landsat影像、ASTER立体像对等数据对该冰川前进过程进行监测研究。结果表明:该冰川于1990-1992年和2007-2013年分别前进81±30 m和811±30 m,其中2007-2013年的前进属于跃动引发的前进。其中跃动最高峰在2007年8月21日-2008年10月26日,期间32.7×106 m3的冰体发生卸载,导致末端前进了704±30 m,面积扩张了0.34 km2。针对东帕米尔地区跃动冰川周期研究的空白,本文认为该冰川跃动周期中跃动期为4 a,平静期最短为15 a左右。该冰川属于多温型冰川,跃动受热力学机制影响的可能性较大,但液态降水、冰雪融水的增加也是影响因素。

关键词: 跃动冰川, 遥感, 高程变化, 立体像对, 东帕米尔高原, 昆盖山

Abstract:

Surge-type glaciers are characterized by rapid ice movement in a relatively short phase and mass redistribution after a comparatively long quiescent phase. They are also related to glacier hazard events such as glacier collapse, flood, and landslide that may cause massive losses to humans. Therefore, monitoring surged glacier will not only help us to explore the mechanism of glacier surge, but also further the research in glacier disaster early warning and risk assessment that have important practical significance. In the process of compiling the second Chinese glacier inventory, a glacier coded as 5Y663L0023 in the Kungey Mountain, eastern Pamir Plateau was found to have advanced a long distance during 1963-2009. Thus, the main aim of this study was to investigate this advanced glacier based on ASTER and Landsat data. From 1990 to 1992, the glacier advanced about 81±30 m. Then the glacier continually advanced about 811±30 m during 2007-2011, which may be attributed to surge. The surge initiation and termination took place from 5 August 2007 to 2011. A total volume of glacier ice of about 32.7×106 m3 was transferred from the upstream below the equilibrium line of the glacier in the main phase of surging between 21 August 2007 and 26 October 2008. This led to an increase of the glacier surface maximum thickness (128.17±0.17 m), glacier area (0.34±0.03 km2), and glacier length (704±30 m). To fill the gap in glacier surge period research, we suggest the active phase of the surged glacier was 4 year, the quench phase was likely about 15 years at least. The main reason behind the glacier surge may be the increase in mean annual air temperature and annual precipitation, as was recorded at the Tashkurgan Meteorological Station in recent years. On the one hand, ice and snow meltwater and liquid precipitation were carried through the crevasses from the surface of the glacier down to the glacier bed when temperature rises. Consequently, the high shear stresses along the frozen side walls due to high-pressure water dammed at the bed progressively broke the ice until glacier surge. On the other hand, build-up of ice from snowfall, avalanches, and snowdrift in the reservoir area increased the driving stress, which led to higher ice creep rates. Eventually, part of the glacier bed was raised to the pressure melting point and produced meltwater. The meltwater did not escape from the glacier and raised basal water pressure that led to reduced basal drag and faster sliding.

Key words: glacier surge, remote sensing, elevation change, stereo pair data, eastern Pamir Plateau, Kungey Mountain