地理科学进展 ›› 2018, Vol. 37 ›› Issue (6): 853-862.doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2018.06.012

• 研究综述 • 上一篇    

基于日常活动空间的社会空间分异研究进展

申悦1(), 柴彦威2   

  1. 1. 华东师范大学 中国现代城市研究中心,上海 200062
    2. 北京大学城市与环境学院,北京 100871
  • 收稿日期:2017-03-10 修回日期:2017-08-13 出版日期:2018-06-28 发布日期:2018-06-28
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:申悦(1987-),女,上海人,副教授,主要研究方向为城市社会地理学与行为地理学,E-mail: shenyue0519@163.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41501180, 41529101, 41571144, 41601159)

Progress of research on sociospatial differentiation based on daily activity space of urban residents

Yue SHEN1(), Yanwei CHAI2   

  1. 1. The Center for Modern Chinese City Studies, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062, China
    2. College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
  • Received:2017-03-10 Revised:2017-08-13 Online:2018-06-28 Published:2018-06-28
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No. 41501180, No. 41529101, No. 41571144, No. 41601159

摘要:

社会空间分异是城市社会学与城市地理学的经典研究议题,也是当前中国社会所面临的现实问题,在大量理论与实证研究的支撑下,形成了从居住空间出发的经典研究范式。而在人类移动性不断增强、居民活动日趋多样化的背景下,传统的研究范式显得静态和片面,难以反映社会空间分异与隔离问题的全貌,因此有必要从居民的日常活动空间出发探讨社会空间分异问题。国际学者们从不同视角出发对该议题进行了探索,本文对已有研究进行了梳理和述评,将已有研究总结为基于活动空间的群体分异与交往、个体活动空间的时空分异、社会空间分异的动态变化三种类型;并以时空间行为研究的理论和方法论为基础,从基于人的空间研究范式出发,构建“人群—活动空间—社会空间”基于活动空间的社会空间分异研究框架;尝试推进社会空间分异研究范式的多元化,从以人为本的立场出发理解城市空间和城市中的人。

关键词: 城市空间, 社会空间分异, 时空间行为, 活动空间, 基于人的研究范式

Abstract:

Sociospatial differentiation, which reflects the uneven spatial distribution of urban social factors, is a classical research topic in urban geography and a realistic problem that the Chinese society is facing at present. Based on a large number of theoretical and empirical studies, the classical research paradigm focusing on the residential space was formed. However, with the reconstruction of urban structure and the rapid development of transportation and information and communication technologies, the activities of urban residents have become increasingly diversified and personalized. In this context, the differentiation and segregation exist not only in residential space, but also in daily activity space of residents, so the traditional research paradigm appears to be insufficient, and it is necessary to understand the sociospatial differentiation pattern from a perspective of people's activity space. Some existing studies aboard have paid attention to this new perspective and attempted to propose new research paradigms or approaches of sociospatial differentiation based on activity space using different hypotheses, methods, and data. This article reviewed existing studies and grouped them into three categories, which are social segregation and communication based on activity space, the differentiation of individuals' activity spaces, and the dynamic sociospatial differentiation. The first type of research emphasizes the social environments in which people could contact in their activity space, usually using individual data to derive activity space and census or statistical data to reflect the social background. The second category of work takes the activity space as the object of differentiation, and examines the spatiotemporal patterns based on individual behavioral data. The third kind of research focuses on the temporal dimension of sociospatial differentiation, and mobile location data and other new types of data are often used to detect the dynamic change of activity space. Based on theories and methodologies of space-time behavior and a people-based spatial research paradigm, this study built a research framework of "people-activity space-social space" to study sociospatial differentiation based on daily activity space, in order to promote the diversification of the research paradigm of sociospatial differentiation, and to understand urban space and people in cities from a human-oriented perspective.

Key words: urban space, sociospatial differentiation, space-time behavior, activity space, people-based research paradigm