地理科学进展 ›› 2018, Vol. 37 ›› Issue (5): 627-635.doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2018.05.006

• 理论探讨 • 上一篇    下一篇

世界乡村转型历程与可持续发展展望

李玉恒1(), 阎佳玉1,2, 武文豪3, 刘彦随1,3,*()   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101
    2. 中国科学院大学,北京 100049
    3. 北京师范大学地理科学学部,北京 100875
  • 收稿日期:2017-12-27 修回日期:2018-04-19 出版日期:2018-05-28 发布日期:2018-05-28
  • 通讯作者: 刘彦随 E-mail:liyuheng@igsnrr.ac.cn;liuys@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:李玉恒(1983-),男,河北石家庄人,博士,副研究员,硕士生导师,主要研究方向为城乡转型与乡村地域系统可持续发展、乡村弹性,E-mail: liyuheng@igsnrr.ac.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41771191);全球乡村计划-中国乡村振兴(GRP-CRV)研究项目

The process of rural transformation in the world and prospects of sustainable development

Yuheng LI1(), Jiayu YAN1,2, Wenhao WU3, Yansui LIU1,3,*()   

  1. 1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
    3. College of Resources Science & Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China;
  • Received:2017-12-27 Revised:2018-04-19 Online:2018-05-28 Published:2018-05-28
  • Contact: Yansui LIU E-mail:liyuheng@igsnrr.ac.cn;liuys@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No. 41771191;Global Rural Plan-China Rural Vitalization Research Project

摘要:

基于对国内外文献梳理总结,根据世界银行数据,从乡村人口、就业、粮食产量、公共服务角度,系统解析了半个多世纪以来世界乡村转型发展的历程,揭示了世界发展由乡村社会逐步向城市社会转型、由农业经济向非农经济转型、发展效率与公共服务质量逐渐提升的演化特征。研究指出,全球化、工业化、城市化进程中乡村地区人口持续、快速减少,加剧了乡村发展的不稳定性和脆弱性,导致乡村衰退,严重影响到乡村经济社会发展的可持续性。为此,强调全球城市化进程中亟需高度重视乡村衰退问题,要积极推进村镇化,形成村镇化与城市化“双轮驱动”的城乡地域发展格局;要制定科学的规划来指导乡村转型与可持续发展,有序实施异地搬迁,鼓励和引导民众“自下而上”的主观能动性,构建乡村发展与农户的利益联结机制;要科学把控乡村转型发展过程,识别并培育打造乡村振兴极,不断提升乡村地域系统应对外界发展、环境变化与挑战的弹性。

关键词: 乡村转型, 乡村振兴, 乡村弹性, 乡村重构, 可持续发展

Abstract:

Based on a literature review and analysis of the statistics of the World Bank, this study investigated the rural transformation process of the world from the aspects of rural population, employment, grain production, and public services. It revealed that the world has transformed from rural society to urban society and from agriculture-based economy to nonagricultural economy. In this process, the development efficiency and public service quality were improved. The article points out that accompanying the globalization, industrialization, and urbanization processes, rapid rural depopulation exacerbated rural instability and vulnerability and led to rural decline that endangers rural sustainability. It highlights the importance of rural vitalization and calls for ruralization to form the urban-rural regional pattern with urbanization. Scientific planning, relocation, and local stakeholders' bottom-up initiatives must be encouraged. It is also necessary to scientifically govern the world's rural transformation process, identify and develop the rural vitalization growth point, and improve rural resilience.

Key words: rural transformation, rural vitalization, rural resilience, rural restructuring, sustainable development