地理科学进展 ›› 2018, Vol. 37 ›› Issue (4): 556-566.doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2018.04.011

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

山区贫困县中小学空间格局变化与可达性分析——以河南省嵩县为例

杨慧敏1(), 张香玲2, 李立3,*(), 李小建1, 王兵2   

  1. 1. 河南大学环境与规划学院/黄河文明与可持续发展研究中心, 河南 开封 475001
    2. 河南省国土资源调查规划院, 郑州 450016
    3. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所/国际生态系统管理合作伙伴计划, 北京 100101
  • 收稿日期:2017-12-19 修回日期:2018-03-22 出版日期:2018-04-20 发布日期:2018-04-20
  • 通讯作者: 李立 E-mail:yanghuimin1989@126.com;li.li@unep-iemp.org
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:杨慧敏(1989-),女,河南汝州人,博士研究生,主要从事城乡发展研究,E-mail: yanghuimin1989@126.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41471117);教育部人文社会科学重点研究基地重大项目(16JJD770021)

Changing spatial pattern and accessibility of primary and secondary schools in a poor mountainous county: A case study of Song County, Henan Province

Huimin YANG1(), Xiangling ZHANG2, Li LI3,*(), Xiaojian LI1, Bing WANG2   

  1. 1. College of Environment and Planning/Center for Yellow River Civilization and Sustainable Development, Henan University, Kaifeng 475001, Henan, China
    2. Henan Institute of Land and Resources Surveying and Planning, Zhengzhou 450016, China
    3. International Ecosystem Management Partnership/Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
  • Received:2017-12-19 Revised:2018-03-22 Online:2018-04-20 Published:2018-04-20
  • Contact: Li LI E-mail:yanghuimin1989@126.com;li.li@unep-iemp.org
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No. 41471117;Major Projects in the Research Base of Humanities and Social Sciences in the Ministry of Education, No. 16JJD770021

摘要:

山区贫困县具有经济落后、交通不便、人口分散且居住空间格局快速变化等特点,使得其中小学空间格局变化及可达性分析在教育公平中具有重要意义。本文以豫西山区贫困县嵩县为例,利用1997、2007、2015年中小学数据,运用趋势面分析和引力模型等方法对其空间格局变化及其空间可达性进行研究。主要结论为:①嵩县中小学空间布局在一些地形条件地区局部集中:小学在浅山丘陵区和低山区分布相对较多,初中则局部集中在浅山丘陵区;②撤点并校使中小学数量减少,各行政村内学校数量的分布差距缩小,趋势线逐渐平缓;③Voronoi模型的Cv值结果显示,中小学空间分布呈集聚分布状态,随着中小学数量的减少其空间集聚程度逐渐下降,在县域北部沿东北—西南走向呈现面状密集分布区,沿境内两条主要干线路(G311和S247)分别形成南北和东西向狭长带状分布区;④2015年中小学空间可达性区域差别明显,小学最远入学距离为最近入学距离的160倍,有26.1%的村庄初中入学距离达10 km以上,且全部位于中山和低山地区;⑤地形、交通、人口、经济、政策因素等对嵩县教育资源的分布具有重要影响。

关键词: 小学和初级中学, 空间格局, 空间可达性, 山区贫困县, 嵩县

Abstract:

Poor mountainous regions in China suffer from economic underdevelopment, inconvenient transportation, scattered population distribution, and fast-changing residential spatial pattern. These make the study of spatial distribution changes of primary and secondary schools in these regions critical for improving education equality. By using the case of Song County in the poor mountainous region of western Henan Province, this study acquired long-term school data (1997, 2007, and 2015), and analyzed the changes in spatial pattern and spatial accessibility of these schools employing the trend surface analysis technique and gravity model. The results show that: (1) Primary and secondary schools in Song County were partially concentrated in areas with some terrain conditions. Primary schools were found more in the hilly and low-mountainous areas, and secondary schools concentrated in the hilly areas. (2) School merges decreased the total number of institutions and the differences in the number of schools among different villages, and the trend line became flat gradually. (3) The Cv value of the Voronoi model shows that schools followed an aggregated distribution pattern, and the degree of aggregation decreased as the number of schools decreased. The schools were mainly found in a region spreading from northeast to southwest in the northern part of the county, forming two narrow distribution bands along the two main roads (S247 and G311). (4) School accessibilities were spatially varied in 2015. The longest distance to school was 160 times that of the shortest distance to school. Villages that had more than 10 km distance to schools were all found in the mid-mountainous and low-mountainous areas, constituting 26.1% of the total number. (5) Terrain, transportation, population, economy, and government policy were all influential to the distribution of educational resources in Song County.

Key words: primary and secondary schools, spatial pattern, spatial accessibility, poor mountainous area, Song County