地理科学进展 ›› 2018, Vol. 37 ›› Issue (3): 438-449.doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2018.03.014

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    

基于GIS的青藏高原史前交通路线与分区分析

朱燕1(), 侯光良1,2,*(), 兰措卓玛3, 高靖易1, 庞龙辉1   

  1. 1. 青海师范大学地理科学学院,西宁 810008
    2. 青海师范大学 青海省自然地理与环境过程重点实验室,西宁 810008
    3. 青海大学财经学院,西宁 810016
  • 收稿日期:2017-09-26 修回日期:2017-11-16 出版日期:2018-03-28 发布日期:2018-03-28
  • 通讯作者: 侯光良 E-mail:18232291326@163.com;hgl20@163.com
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:朱燕(1994-),女,河北邢台人,硕士研究生,主要从事全球变化与人类适应研究,E-mail: 18232291326@163.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41761018);青海省科技厅自然科学基金项目(2017-ZJ-903)

GIS-based analysis of traffic routes and regional division of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau in prehistoric period

Yan ZHU1(), Guangliang HOU1,2,*(), Cuozhuoma LAN3, Jingyi GAO1, Longhui PANG1   

  1. 1. School of Geography Science, Qinghai Normal University, Xi'ning 810008, China
    2. Physical Geography and Environmental Process Key Laboratory of Qinghai Province, Xi'ning 810008, China
    3. School of Finance and Economics, Qinghai University, Xi'ning 810016, China
  • Received:2017-09-26 Revised:2017-11-16 Online:2018-03-28 Published:2018-03-28
  • Contact: Guangliang HOU E-mail:18232291326@163.com;hgl20@163.com
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41761018;Natural Science Fund Project of Science and Technology Department of Qinghai Province, No.2017-ZJ-903

摘要:

青藏高原自然环境恶劣,但并非是生命的禁区。确切证据表明,末次冰消期人类已扩张至高原地区,并通过长期实践形成了较为稳定的交通路线格局。通过构建自然因子模拟—遗址分布校正方法,利用GIS得到青藏高原史前交通路线模拟结果,再结合考古证据对模拟路线进行印证。依据模拟结果将高原分为以下4个区:东北区、东南区、西南区以及西北无人区。其中东北区路线遗址点密度高,落入路线内的遗址点数量占总数的88.56%。路线形成于旧石器时期,其方向为东西向,密切联系东北区的内部,并向外沟通黄土高原与北方地区,其形成与发展为彩陶、粟黍、小麦的传播以及丝绸之路的形成奠定了基础。东南区路线为南北走向,北与黄河上游地区连接,南与四川盆地、云贵高原沟通,加强了南北方地区的文化交流,是民族融合与交流的大走廊。西南区位于高原的腹心地带,模拟的路线体现了人类对青藏高原主体的征服,其线路总长度4602.32 km为3个区域内最长,是人类向高原进军的第2条重要通道。西北无人区主要为高寒荒漠区,其自然环境极端恶劣不适宜人类生存,故无路线分布。

关键词: 交通路线, 考古遗址, 模拟, GIS, 青藏高原

Abstract:

The environment of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is harsh, but it is not a restricted area for life. Evidence suggests that humans have entered the plateau area during the last deglacial period, and formed relatively stable patterns of traffic routes through long-term practices. Through the construction of a natural factor simulation-site distribution correction method and using GIS tools, this study obtained the traffic route simulation results of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in the prehistoric period and verified the results with archaeological evidence. The plateau area is divided into four regions based on the simulation results, namely: the northeast, southeast, southwest, and northwest regions. The routes site density of the northeast region is high and the number of sites falling into these routes accounted for 88.56% of the total number of sites in this area. The earliest routes were formed during the paleolithic period and are in the east-west direction. These routes and closely linked within the region and reach out to the Loess Plateau and the northern area of China. The formation and development of these routes laid the foundation for the spread of pottery, wheat, and millet and the emergence of the Silk Road. The direction of the routes is north-south in the southeast region. The northern part of the routes connects the upper reach of the Yellow River, and the southern part of the routes connects the Sichuan Basin and Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau. The routes strengthen the cultural exchanges between the south and the north, and are the large corridors of national integration and communication. The southwest region is located in the center of the plateau. The routes of this area reflect the conquest of the main body in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. The total length of the routes is about 4600 km and is the longest in the three regions. The routes are the second important corridor for humans to enter the plateau. The northwest region mainly consists of alpine desert and its natural environment is unsuitable for human survival, so the area is void of prehistoric traffic routes.

Key words: traffic routes, archeological site, simulation, GIS, Qinghai-Tibet Plateau