地理科学进展 ›› 2018, Vol. 37 ›› Issue (1): 36-45.doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2018.01.005

• 自然地理学分支学科 • 上一篇    下一篇

水文学研究进展与展望

杨大文1(), 徐宗学2, 李哲3, 袁星4, 王磊5, 缪驰远6, 田富强1, 田立德5, 龙笛1, 汤秋鸿3,*(), 刘星才3, 张学君3   

  1. 1. 清华大学水利水电工程系,北京 100084
    2. 北京师范大学水科学研究院,北京100875
    3. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所 陆地水循环及地表过程重点实验室,北京100101
    4. 中国科学院大气物理研究所,北京 100029
    5. 中国科学院青藏高原研究所,北京 100101
    6. 北京师范大学全球变化与地球科学系统科学学院,北京100875
  • 收稿日期:2017-12-25 修回日期:2018-01-19 出版日期:2018-01-28 发布日期:2018-01-28
  • 通讯作者: 汤秋鸿 E-mail:yangdw@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn;tangqh@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:杨大文(1966-),男,四川成都人,教授,主要从事水文水资源研究,E-mail: yangdw@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(L1624026,41425002,41790424);中国科学院学部学科发展战略研究项目(2016-DX-C-02)

Progress and prospect of hydrological sciences

Dawen YANG1(), Zongxue XU2, Zhe LI3, Xing YUAN4, Lei WANG5, Chiyuan MIAO6, Fuqiang TIAN1, Lide TIAN5, Di LONG1, Qiuhong TANG3,*(), Xingcai LIU3, Xuejun ZHANG3   

  1. 1. Department of Hydraulic Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
    2. College of Water Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
    3. Key Laboratory of Water Cycle and Related Land Surface Processes, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    4. Key Laboratory of Regional Climate-Environment for Temperate East Asia (RCE-TEA), Institute of Atmospheric Physics, CAS, Beijing 100029, China
    5. Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    6. State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, Faculty of Geographical Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China;
  • Received:2017-12-25 Revised:2018-01-19 Online:2018-01-28 Published:2018-01-28
  • Contact: Qiuhong TANG E-mail:yangdw@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn;tangqh@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.L1624026, No.41425002, No.41790424;Research Project on the Development Strategy of Chinese Academy of Sciences, No.2016-DX-C-02

摘要:

水文学是研究地球上水的起源、存在、分布、循环运动等变化规律,并运用这些规律为人类服务的知识体系。水文学研究经历了由经验到理论、由简单过程到复杂系统、由定性描述到定量模拟的发展历程,其学科体系演进与科学技术进步及社会发展需求紧密联系,并由此衍生出诸如生态水文学、气象水文学、冰冻圈水文学、遥感水文学、同位素水文学、城市水文学、社会水文学等多种交叉研究领域与分支学科。当今水文学研究在水文多尺度观测、陆面—水文—社会耦合模拟及多源观测—模型同化技术等领域取得显著进展,水文学研究的广度和深度不断拓展。未来水文学研究将面向陆地水文循环的变化规律及其效应,重点关注水文循环变化特征和机理、水文循环变化趋势预估及水文循环变化的自然和社会影响等前沿课题;从原有就水论水研究思路转向在自然地理综合分析框架下以水循环为纽带开展的多尺度、多过程集成研究。

关键词: 水文学, 水文循环, 地球系统, 人类活动, 观测技术, 学科交叉

Abstract:

Hydrology is the science that describes the continuous movement of water, the related biogeochemical and geophysical processes, and their interactions with the environment. Hydrology research has evolved from experience-based to theories, from single process to complex systems, and from qualitative interpretations to quantitative models. The progress and evolution of hydrology has been intimately intertwined with the scientific and technological progresses and socioeconomic development, which creates many branches and interdisciplinary areas of hydrology, such as ecohydrology, hydrometeorology, cryosphere hydrology, hydrologic remote sensing, isotope hydrology, urban hydrology, and socio-hydrology. Hydrology research has made notable progress in the fields of multi-scale observations, coupled land surface-hydrology-society modeling, and multi-source data and model assimilation techniques, which further expands the connotation of hydrological study. In the future, hydrology research will focus on the characteristics and mechanism of the changes of water cycle, prediction of the changes of water cycle, and natural and social impact assessment of the changes of water cycle, in order to offer sustainable solutions to water security. In summary, the research paradigm of hydrology would shift from the traditionally self-focused approaches to the emerging integrated approaches that focus on all the water-related processes across multiple scales and sectors in the earth system.

Key words: hydrology, hydrological cycle, earth system, human activity, hydrologic observation, interdisciplinary