地理科学进展 ›› 2017, Vol. 36 ›› Issue (12): 1489-1499.doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2017.12.004

• 专辑|地缘政治 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国高铁外交的地缘空间格局

黄宇1(), 葛岳静1,2,*(), 马腾1, 刘晓凤1   

  1. 1. 北京师范大学地理科学学部,北京 100875
    2. 中国西南地缘环境与边疆发展协同创新中心,昆明 650500
  • 出版日期:2017-12-20 发布日期:2017-12-20
  • 通讯作者: 葛岳静 E-mail:201631170015@mail.bnu.edu.cn;geyj@bnu.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:黄宇(1991-),女,博士研究生,研究方向为全球化与地缘环境,E-mail: 201631170015@mail.bnu.edu.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家社科基金重大项目(16ZDA041)

Geopolitical space of China's high-speed railway diplomacy

Yu HUANG1(), Yuejing GE1,2,*(), Teng MA1, Xiaofeng LIU1   

  1. 1. Faculty of Geographical Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
    2. Geographical Environment and the Frontier Development of Collaborative Innovation Center in Southwestern China, Kunming 650500, China
  • Online:2017-12-20 Published:2017-12-20
  • Contact: Yuejing GE E-mail:201631170015@mail.bnu.edu.cn;geyj@bnu.edu.cn
  • Supported by:
    Major Research Plan of National Social Science Foundation of China, No.16ZDA041

摘要:

高铁的空间运送能力极强,但建设耗资巨大,并因此对地缘经济和地缘政治产生着迅速而深远的影响,也使得高铁的贸易格局兼具国际政治和外交属性。中、日、德、法是目前主要的高铁出口国,在国际高铁市场上竞争激烈。本文从地缘政治的"空间—权力"视角出发,基于对国家发展的安全利益、发展利益和影响利益逻辑,综合考量高铁修建的基础条件、高铁出口竞争国的空间利益格局、中国的竞争优势等方面,采用空间叠加分析方法,尝试得出中国“高铁外交”的地缘空间及合作方式。主要结论为:①中国“高铁外交”的优先发展空间主要包括俄罗斯、哈萨克斯坦、印度、泰国、越南、马来西亚、印度尼西亚、澳大利亚、韩国、美国和巴西等国;②中国与美、韩、俄、哈、澳5国可展开多层次的高铁合作,与印、泰、越、印尼4国可从发电、输变电等前期工程开始合作,与巴西、马来西亚两国可根据市场需求先进行前期的工程合作;③除高铁优先发展空间外,吉尔吉斯斯坦、塔吉克斯坦、巴基斯坦、孟加拉国、缅甸、老挝、柬埔寨等国可在充分考虑市场需求和风险的前提下融资、投资和承建;④在中国利益重点区域之外,从高铁修建的经济利益出发,在经济基础较好且已有铁路合作的国家进一步进行高铁合作可行性较大,如罗马尼亚、爱沙尼亚、波兰、匈牙利、塞尔维亚、白俄罗斯等国。

关键词: “, 高铁外交”, 地缘政治, 权力, 地缘空间, 竞争与合作

Abstract:

With its extremely strong transportation capability and tremendous cost of construction, high-speed railway not only brings rapid and significant effects on geo-economics and geopolitics, but also extends its trade pattern into the domains of international politics and diplomacy. China, Japan, Germany, and France are the major exporters of high-speed railway and all get involved in a keen competition in the international high-speed railway market. From the power and space perspectives of geopolitics and based on the national interests of security, development, and international influence, this article adopts an overlay analysis of the construction conditions, spatial interest pattern of exporting competitors, and China's competitive advantage, to demonstrate the geopolitical space and cooperation methods of China's high-speed railway diplomacy. The conclusions are as follows. First, the priority space of China's high-speed railway diplomacy includes Russia, Kazakhstan, India, Thailand, Vietnam, Malaysia, Indonesia, Australia, South Korea, the United States, and Brazil; Second, China can develop a multi-level cooperation with the United States, South Korea, Russia, Kazakhstan, and Australia. We also suggest that cooperation with other candidate countries should start with pre-engineering projects such as power generation and transmission. It is possible to cooperate with Brazil and Indonesia by pre-project engineering cooperation based on market demand. Third, in addition to cooperate with countries in the priority space, China can provide financial aid to Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Laos, Cambodia and other countries with careful consideration of the high-speed railway market demand and risk. Finally, considering only the economic interest, other countries with existing railway project cooperation may be the potential high-speed railway cooperators, such as Romania, Belarus, Estonia, Poland, Hungary, and Serbia.

Key words: high-speed railway diplomacy, geopolitics, power, geopolitical space, competition and cooperation