地理科学进展 ›› 2017, Vol. 36 ›› Issue (10): 1239-1249.doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2017.10.006

• 专题研究:健康与人居环境 • 上一篇    下一篇

公共交通影响下的北京公共服务设施可达性

蒋海兵1(), 张文忠2,3,*(), 韦胜4,5   

  1. 1. 盐城师范学院城市与规划学院,江苏 盐城 224002
    2. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101
    3. 中国科学院大学,北京 100049
    4. 江苏省城市规划设计研究院,南京 210036
    5. 南京大学建筑与城市规划学院,南京 210093
  • 出版日期:2017-10-28 发布日期:2017-10-28
  • 通讯作者: 张文忠 E-mail:haibingjiang1@163.com;zhangwz@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:蒋海兵(1978-),男,江苏建湖县人,副教授,博士,研究方向为城市和区域交通可达性,E-mail: haibingjiang1@163.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金重点项目(41230632);国家自然科学基金青年项目(41301108,51608213)

Public service facility accessibility as influenced by public transportation in Beijing

Haibing JIANG1(), Wenzhong ZHANG2,3,*(), Sheng WEI4,5   

  1. 1. School of Urban and Planning, Yancheng Teachers University, Yancheng 224002, Jiangsu, China
    2. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    3. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
    4. Jiangsu Institute of Urban Planning and Design, Nanjing 210036, China
    5. School of Architecture and Urban Planning, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China
  • Online:2017-10-28 Published:2017-10-28
  • Contact: Wenzhong ZHANG E-mail:haibingjiang1@163.com;zhangwz@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • Supported by:
    Key Program of National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41230632;Youth Program of National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41301108, No.51608213

摘要:

本文尝试利用大量微观空间数据从供需角度评价北京公共交通影响下的公共服务设施可达性及其空间效率和供需匹配情况,分别采用比例法与最短时间距离法测算公共服务设施的可达性,运用定序变量相关法与因子空间叠置法分析公共设施可达性的供需匹配程度。结果表明:北京居住小区公共设施总体可达性水平较高。其中,4环以内各类公共设施可达性水平最高,居住小区到公共设施的平均时间20分钟内的小区占比高达90%以上;5-6环可达性水平最差,平均时间20分钟内的小区占比在50%以下。高需求高可达性街道比重相对较高,而高需求低可达性街道主要分布于5-6环的东部和北部地区。在公共设施中,小学可达性最好,而医院和购物中心则更强调空间效率。针对识别出的公共设施的高需求低可达性街道,应从出行方式、公共交通线路与公共服务设施建设等方面采取对策,化解公共设施的供需矛盾问题。

关键词: 公共交通, 公共服务设施, 可达性, 供需匹配, 北京

Abstract:

This study evaluated Beijing metropolitan public service facility accessibility, use efficiency, and supply and demand mismatch using a massive amount of spatial data. Ratio and shortest time distance methods were applied to calculate public service facility accessibility. By employing the rank correlation and spatial overlay methods, this study analyzed the mismatch between supply and demand of accessibility. The results show that the overall facility accessibility is good in Beijing. Accessibility of all types of facilities is best within the 4th ring road, where the average shortest travel time from residential areas to facilities is lowest. Facility accessibility is worst between the 5th and the 6th ring roads, where the average shortest travel time is the longest among all zones. Residential communities with high demand and high accessibility account for the highest proportion. Residential communities with high demand and low accessibility are mainly located in the eastern and northern parts of the city between the 5th and the 6th ring roads, where facility accessibility needs to be improved. Among the four types of facilities, primary schools have the highest accessibility because primary and middle schools attached greater importance to equity in access. However, hospitals and shopping malls emphasized more on spatial efficiency. For the residential communities with high demand and low accessibility, measures should be taken to improve travel modes and public transportation routes and construct new facilities in order to solve the accessibility problem and address the imbalance between supply and demand.

Key words: public transportation, public service facility, accessibility, supply and demand mismatch, Beijing