地理科学进展 ›› 2017, Vol. 36 ›› Issue (10): 1185-1195.doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2017.10.001

• 研究综述 •    下一篇

西方劳工地理学研究进展及对中国的启示

黄耿志1,2(), 张虹鸥1,2, 王洋1,2, 金利霞1,2, 陈昆仑3   

  1. 1. 广州地理研究所,广州 510070
    2. 广东省地理空间信息技术与应用公共实验室,广州 510070
    3. 湖北大学,武汉 430062
  • 出版日期:2017-10-28 发布日期:2017-10-28
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:黄耿志(1986-),男,广东汕尾人,副研究员,主要从事城市化、非正规经济和劳动力研究,E-mail: hhhgz@126.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41771137);广东省自然科学基金项目(2015A030313842);广东省科学院引进高层次领军人才专项资金项目(2016GDASRC-0101)

A review of labor geography research in the West and its implications for China

Gengzhi HUANG1,2(), Hong'ou ZHANG1,2, Yang WANG1,2, Lixia JIN1,2, Kunlun CHEN3   

  1. 1. Guangzhou Institute of Geography, Guangzhou 510070, China
    2. Guangdong Open Laboratory of Geospatial Information Technology and Application, Guangzhou 510070, China
    3. Hubei University, Wuhan 430062, China
  • Online:2017-10-28 Published:2017-10-28
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41771137;Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province, China, No.2015A030313842;The High-level Leading Talent Introduction Program of GDAS, No.2016GDASRC-0101

摘要:

与新古典工业区位论和新马克思主义经济地理学论将工人视为一种生产要素和抽象劳动力不同,劳工地理学将工人视为具有能动性的社会主体,研究工人如何按照自身的意愿创造有助于自身生存和再生产的空间。这种劳工认识论的转变在国际经济地理学界产生了极大和持续的反响,促使劳工地理学发展成为具有独特概念体系的经济地理子学科。本文梳理了近20年西方劳工地理学的研究进展,围绕工人能动性的概念、表现形式、形成机制以及它与空间、尺度、地方、全球生产网络之间的关系展开分析。最后基于劳工地理学前沿问题的分析,认为中国劳工地理研究应重点关注中国特色工会体制下工人能动性的构成、经济地理影响与形成的地域条件,并探索有助于社会升级的制度安排。开展劳工地理研究有助于拓展经济地理学的劳动力研究范畴,对认识中国市场经济深入发展时期面临的劳资矛盾和探索共享发展政策具有重要的现实意义。

关键词: 劳工地理学, 劳动力, 工人能动性, 空间, 全球生产网络, 社会升级

Abstract:

Labor geography, which conceptualizes workers as social actors with agency rather than as a simple locational factor as seen in the neo-classical location theory, has become a thriving and important subfield of economic geography in the past two decades. However, labor geography received little attention in the literature of domestic economic geography despite the rising capital-labor contradiction having been challenging the marketization development in China. Attempting to provide a conceptual framework for the Chinese labor geography study, this article reviews the labor geography literature and identifies its emerging frontier questions. It first explains what labor geography is by examining the concept of worker agency and its spatiality. It then analyzes the progress of labor geography by focusing on the forms of worker agency and its formation mechanism, expounding their connections with space, place, global production networks, and social upgrading. The analyses show that labor geography has evolved from the narrow focus on collective forms of agency to the expanded one on variegated landscapes of agency that include worker individual social-spatial practices, and from the focus on the forms and influences of worker agency to the structurally territorial conditions that shape the possibilities of worker agency. It is suggested that there are four important issues for the Chinese labor geography study: (1) the variegated landscapes of worker agency in the context of the trade union institution with Chinese characteristics; (2) the potential impacts of labor agency on the restructuring of economic landscapes; (3) the embeddedness of worker agency in places where workers live and work in the context of China with specific institutional, economic, and social conditions; and (4) the institutional arrangements that contribute to social upgrading of workers. This article concludes by calling for the study of labor geography in China, which can provide a geographical perspective for understanding the Polanyian countermovement facing current China and policy implications for the inclusive development in the country.

Key words: labor geography, labor, worker agency, space, global production networks, social upgrading