地理科学进展 ›› 2017, Vol. 36 ›› Issue (9): 1111-1118.doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2017.09.007

所属专题: 地理大数据

• 专辑:城市文化感知与计算 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于大数据的文化遗产认知分析方法——以北京旧城中轴线为例

杨微石1,2,3(), 郭旦怀4,5,*(), 逯燕玲6, 王德强4,5, 朱映秋4,5, 张宝秀6   

  1. 1. 中山大学地理科学与规划学院 广东省城市化与地理环境空间模拟重点实验室,广州 510275
    2. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101
    3. 中国科学院陆地表层格局与模拟重点实验室,北京 100101
    4. 中国科学院计算机网络信息中心,北京 100190
    5. 中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
    6. 北京联合大学, 北京 100101
  • 出版日期:2017-09-27 发布日期:2017-09-27
  • 通讯作者: 郭旦怀 E-mail:43106363@qq.com;guodanhuai@cnic.cn
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:杨微石(1985-),男,江西赣州人,博士生,主要研究方向为土地利用变化及其生态效应,E-mail: 43106363@qq.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41371158, 41371386);北京市自然科学基金项目(9172023)

Analyzing perception of cultural heritage sites based on big data: A case study of Beijing Central Axis

Weishi YANG1,2,3(), Danhuai GUO4,5,*(), Yanling LU6, Deqiang WANG4,5, Yinqiu ZHU4,5, Baoxiu ZHANG6   

  1. 1. Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Urbanization and Geo-simulation, School of Geography and Planning, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
    2. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    3. Key Laboratory of Land Surface Pattern and Simulation, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    4. Computer Network Information Center, CAS, Beijing 100190, China
    5. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
    6. Beijing Union University, Beijing 100101, China
  • Online:2017-09-27 Published:2017-09-27
  • Contact: Danhuai GUO E-mail:43106363@qq.com;guodanhuai@cnic.cn
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41371158, No.41371386;Beijing Natural Science Foundation, No.9172023

摘要:

以北京旧城中轴文化遗产为例,利用2012、2015年的相关微博、报刊新闻、学术文献数据,通过提取关键词,抽取词频、tf-idf权重、互信息、后验概率等特征,从群体、时间、空间多个维度分析文化遗产的认知。在人群维度上,通过具有特征性人群的传媒信息,发现不同人群对文化遗产的认识存在异同:对于中轴文化遗产核心单元故宫、天安门、天坛的认知相对一致,而对于钟楼鼓楼、太庙、地安门的认识,官方偏向于行政管理,学者偏向于历史价值,大众则偏向于生活化。在时间维度上,提取文化遗产关注程度和认知变化。如相对于2015年,大众对故宫、天安门的关注程度相对提高,对太庙的历史价值认识更为丰富。大众相对于官方和学者对文化遗产的认知更容易发生变化,且对热点事件敏感。在空间维度上,挖掘文化遗产单元之间的认知转移和关联模式,一方面,空间上相连的天安门—正阳门—正阳门大街具有较高的双向认知;另一方面,中轴文化遗产中,故宫、天安门、天坛的后验概率较高,表现出跨空间的认知汇聚模式。基于大数据的认知分析方法,是问卷调查、文献调研、访谈分析等传统方法的重要补充方式,能够降低数据收集者的主观影响,增加分析维度和效率,有助于发现隐含的知识和模式。本文结论可为文化遗产价值挖掘、保护提供决策支持。

关键词: 大数据分析, 数据挖掘, 文化遗产感知, tf-idf权重, 北京中轴线

Abstract:

This article analyzes perceptions concerning cultural heritage sites along the central axis of Beijing from community, temporal, and spatial perspectives by extracting keywords, word frequency, term frequency-inverse document frequency (TF-IDF) weight, mutual information, posterior probability, and other features in microblogs, newspapers and magazines, and academic publications in 2012 and 2015. On the community dimension, through media information of characteristic groups, we found that different groups have different understanding of cultural heritage sites. The core sites of Beijing Central Axis cultural heritage, such as the Imperial Palace, Tiananmen, and Temple of Heaven are perceived relatively consistently by different communities. But the perceptions of the Bell and Drum Towers, Imperial Ancestral Temple, and Di'anmen are varied: officials are concerned with their administrative aspects, scholars are concerned with their historical values, and the public are concerned with their leisure and entertainment qualities. On the temporal dimension, changes of level of attention and perception on these cultural heritage sites are also observed. In 2015, the public paid more attention to the Forbidden City, Tiananmen, the Temple of Heaven, and the Imperial Ancestral Temple for their historical values as compared to 2012. Public perception, compared with that of officials and scholars, is more likely to change and more sensitive to significant events. On the spatial dimension, this research has examined the transfer of perception and correlation between cultural heritage sites. First, Tiananmen, Zhengyang Gate, and Zhengyang Avenue, which are connected in space, show higher two-way perceptions. Second, the posterior probability of the Imperial Palace, Tiananmen, and the Temple of Heaven is higher among the central axis cultural heritage sites, showing a cross space perception convergence model. Thus the analytical framework for perception of cultural heritage based on big data is an important supplement for traditional methods such as questionnaires, literature research, and interview analysis, as it increases the dimension and efficiency of analysis and aids to discover hidden knowledge and patterns. The conclusion of this study can provide important support for policy making in the rediscovery and protection of cultural heritage values.

Key words: big data analysis, data mining, perception of cultural heritage, term frequency-inverse document frequency(TF-IDF) weight, Beijing Central Axis