地理科学进展 ›› 2017, Vol. 36 ›› Issue (9): 1067-1080.doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2017.09.003

• 专辑:城市文化感知与计算 • 上一篇    下一篇

陕西传统村落文化遗产景观基因识别

翟洲燕1(), 李同昇1,*(), 常芳2, 罗雅丽1,3, 石钰1   

  1. 1. 西北大学城市与环境学院, 西安 710127
    2. 西安外国语大学人文地理研究所,西安 710128
    3. 淮阴工学院建筑工程学院,江苏 淮安 223001
  • 出版日期:2017-09-27 发布日期:2017-09-27
  • 通讯作者: 李同昇 E-mail:zhaizhouyan@163.com;leetang@nwu.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:翟洲燕(1987-),女,山西晋城人,博士研究生,主要从事传统村落文化地理研究,E-mail: zhaizhouyan@163.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41601174);陕西省教育厅专项科研计划项目(16JK1757)

Genes identification of cultural heritage landscape of Shaanxi Traditional Villages

Zhouyan ZHAI1(), Tongsheng LI1,*(), Fang CHANG2, Yali LUO1,3, Yu Shi1   

  1. 1. College of Urban and Environmental Science, Northwest University, Xi'an 710127, China
    2. Institute of Human Geography, Xi'an International Studies University, Xi'an 710128, China
    3. College of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Huaiyin Institute of Technology, Huai'an 223001, Jiangsu, China
  • Online:2017-09-27 Published:2017-09-27
  • Contact: Tongsheng LI E-mail:zhaizhouyan@163.com;leetang@nwu.edu.cn
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41601174;Scientific Research Project of Education Department of Shaanxi Province, No. 16JK1757

摘要:

文化遗产景观是地域文化的符号表征,文化遗产景观基因则是地域文化代际传承的基本“遗传”单位和文化遗产景观形成的决定性因子。目前文化遗产景观基因研究已成为文化地理学的重要方向之一。通过识别与提取隐藏在文化遗产景观内的文化基因,可反映出地域文化的基本特质。传统村落是最具代表性的地域文化遗产景观,整体上延续和传承了中国优秀的传统文化,并集中体现在传统村落内的文化遗产景观之中,对传统村落进行遗产性景观基因识别研究可揭示地域文化的人文地理性和传统村落的社会文化性。基于地域文化遗产景观基因理念,以陕西省35个代表性传统村落为例,首先从宏观和中观尺度,分析了传统村落遗产性景观的文化环境特征;其次从微观视角,建立了传统村落文化遗产景观基因识别指标体系,综合运用景观基因识别与提取方法,对传统村落文化遗产景观的基因特征进行分析,识别出传统村落的地域文化特质。本文旨在从文化地理学的视角认识和保护传统村落文化遗产景观,为实现传统村落的文化复兴提供科学依据。

关键词: 传统村落, 文化遗产景观, 地域文化, 遗产性景观基因, 陕西

Abstract:

Genes of cultural heritage landscape, the basic units of cultural heritage, can pass on regional culture and have become the new research direction of cultural geography. By extracting and recognizing memes of cultural heritage landscape, it is possible to reflect regional cultural characteristics. Traditional villages are the most representative kind of regional cultural heritage landscape, which embody and preserve our traditional culture. Gene recognition research of regional cultural heritage landscape could not only expand the scope of studies of traditional settlements but also reveal the human geographical features of regional culture and the sociocultural distinctions of traditional villages. Existing literature in China on identifying landscape genes from traditional settlements has not examined inherited genes and genetic structures of traditional culture and has rarely been used in the study of traditional villages. This article is an attempt to exercise the conception of regional cultural heritage landscape gene into cultural space research of traditional villages. It focuses on selected typical traditional villages in Shaanxi Province at the macroscale, mesoscale, and microscale. First, considering the regional culture discrepancies between the Guanzhong, the Shanbei, and the Shannan areas in Shaanxi Province, representativeness of the cases, balance in geographic distribution, and comprehensiveness of available data, the study selected 35 traditional villages; Second, on the macroscale and mesoscale, this article analyzes cultural environment characteristics of the cultural heritage landscape inheritance in these villages, which are found to be in conformity with the geomantic principles, the bionic design, and the traditional Li thought. Without strictly obeying the architectural shapes in urban landscapes, the location and the overall layout of traditional villages are more flexible, but still have many similar environmental characteristics as cities; Third, for establishing a landscape genes identification index system, the study divided the attributes of cultural heritage landscape into six sub-indices and 17 indicators, and applied various methods to extract and identify feature genes of the material and immaterial cultural heritage landscape at the microscale, including traditional dwellings, public building architecture, conventional custom, folk beliefs, ancestral culture, and regional dialects; Fourth, regional cultural traits are explored, which can be classified into two categories: the cultural feature of general characters, and the cultural feature of local characters. The agrarian and patriarchal clan culture is considered the general cultural character. Local cultural characters are examined in the following aspects: the military culture, the immigration culture, the communication and business culture, the industry culture, and the political culture. This research may provide a foundation for the study of constructing cultural heritage landscape genetic map in China for rejuvenating traditional village cultures.

Key words: traditional villages, cultural heritage landscape, regional culture, memes of cultural landscape, Shaanxi