地理科学进展 ›› 2017, Vol. 36 ›› Issue (8): 952-964.doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2017.08.00

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国春运人口省际流动的时空与结构特征

赵梓渝1(), 魏冶2, 庞瑞秋2, 杨冉2, 王士君2()   

  1. 1. 吉林大学地球科学学院,长春 130061
    2. 东北师范大学地理科学学院,长春 130024
  • 出版日期:2017-08-31 发布日期:2017-08-28
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:赵梓渝(1986-),男,吉林长春人,博士研究生,主要从事城市网络及人口流动研究,E-mail: zyzhao14@mails.jlu.edu.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金重点项目(41630749);国家自然科学基金项目(41401172,51178091)

Spatiotemporal and structural characteristics of interprovincial population flow during the 2015 Spring Festival travel rush

Ziyu ZHAO1(), Ye WEI2, Ruiqiu PANG2, Ran YANG2, Shijun WANG2()   

  1. 1. College of Earth Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun 130061, China
    2. School of Geographical Sciences, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024, China
  • Online:2017-08-31 Published:2017-08-28
  • Supported by:
    Key Project of National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41630749;National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41401172, No.51178091

摘要:

本文通过构建人口省际流动的关系矩阵,透视2015年中国春节期间人口省际流动的动态过程、网络特征,并对各省人口流入、流出的规模差异进行测度。研究结论如下:①春节前后中国各省每日人口净流入人次存在显著的规律性特征,2月13-17日和2月25日-3月1日为各省节前返乡流和节后返工流期间人口净流入、流出峰值时段,可作为基于春运研究中国人口省际流动的重要依据;②识别了14个人口净流入省、17个人口净流出省,净流入位序前六省和后八省分别吸纳和提供了全国9成人口的集聚与扩散。人口主要流入省的沿海绵延和主要流出省的中部“人口塌陷”共同构成了双纵格局;③各省流出首位流的指向特征显著,南方人口流出省的流出指向存在共性,京津、长三角、珠三角地区的人口集聚路径存在差异。④移动数据为发掘人口流动过程中蕴含的丰富信息提供了平台,基于节后、节前净流入值差值的方法可以有效识别中国人口流动的规模差异、属性特征。通过与以往研究对比,证实了移动数据与基于人口普查数据研究的诸多结论相似性。

关键词: 春运, 人口流动, 省际流动, 网络结构, 中国

Abstract:

China is one of the most active areas of the world's population mobility. The social structure of China during the socioeconomic transition period, the country's development phase, and its unique cultural background together form the Spring Festival travel rush, a social behavioral phenomenon with a significant regularity and a high degree of uniformity and unity. By constructing the 2015 Spring Festival interprovincial population flow relation matrix, we examined the dynamics of population flow and its spatial characteristics. The results are as follows: (1) 13-17 February and 25 February-1 March were the peak population flow periods before and after the holiday season. Inflow and outflow of population between provinces during these time periods can be indicative of interprovincial migration of floating population in China. We identified 14 net population inflow provinces and 17 net population outflow provinces. The top six and bottom eight population inflow provinces in the eastern and central regions form the double vertical pattern of immigration and emigration of floating population in China. (2) Provincial population outflow primary directions are clear and flow from the central to the eastern coastal areas is the main direction and path of migration of the floating population. Guangdong and Beijing are the primary migration destinations of the floating population in southern and northern china. These two province/municipality monopolized 2/3 of the interprovincial population flow of the country. (3) The source areas of the floating population in the Beijing and Tianjin area, the Yangtze River Delta, and the Pearl River Delta—the three major population agglomeration areas—are significantly different. Those in the Beijing and Tianjin area and the Pearl River Delta are mainly directly from the floating population emigration provinces, but the Yangtze River Delta has formed a more advanced network structure. (4) Mobility-based study on the temporal and spatial characteristics of China's population flow contains a wealth of information on floating population migration, and the Spring Festival travel rush provides an opportunity for such study. By comparing the result with previous research results, similarity between the new data and many conclusions based on the census data is clear.

Key words: Spring Festival travel rush, population flow, interprovincial flow, network structure, China