地理科学进展 ›› 2017, Vol. 36 ›› Issue (6): 753-761.doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2017.06.010

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于遥感数据的叶尔羌河流域水文过程模拟与分析

刘蛟1,2(), 刘铁1,*(), 黄粤1, 包安明1   

  1. 1. 荒漠与绿洲生态国家重点实验室,中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所,乌鲁木齐 830011
    2. 中国科学院大学,北京 100049
  • 出版日期:2017-06-20 发布日期:2017-06-20
  • 通讯作者: 刘铁 E-mail:liujiao1102@aliyun.com;liutie@ms.xjb.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:刘蛟(1986-),男,四川成都人,博士研究生,主要从事流域水文过程研究,E-mail:liujiao1102@aliyun.com

  • 基金资助:
    青年千人计划——新疆项目(374231001);中国科学院特色研究所计划项目(Y674122);国家自然科学基金(41301039,U1503183)

Simulation and analysis of the hydrological processes in the Yarkant River Basin based on remote sensing data

Jiao LIU1,2(), Tie LIU1,*(), Yue HUANG1, Anming BAO1   

  1. 1. State Key Laboratory of Desert and Oasis Ecology, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, CAS, Urumqi 83001, China
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100049, China
  • Online:2017-06-20 Published:2017-06-20
  • Contact: Tie LIU E-mail:liujiao1102@aliyun.com;liutie@ms.xjb.ac.cn
  • Supported by:
    the Thousand Youth Talents Plan of China: Xinjiang Projects, No.374231001;Special Institute Research Project of Chinese Academy of Sciences, No.Y674122;National Natural Science Foundation of China,No.41301039, No.U1503183

摘要:

在西北荒漠-绿洲生态系统中,山区水循环对下游水资源管理具有重要作用。为了准确地理解高寒山区水文过程,以降水、温度和潜在蒸散发的遥感数据为模型输入,建立叶尔羌河流域的MIKE SHE模型。根据模型输出,从径流、积雪和蒸散发三方面探讨了流域的水文过程。结果表明:经校正后的遥感产品在叶尔羌河流域的水文模拟中取得了良好的应用效果,出山口卡群站日径流的效率系数达0.71,相关系数达0.85。河道的年平均径流深为146.66 mm,其中稳定的基流补给占21.3%。流域的年平均降雪231 mm,占总降水的74%左右;73.9%的融雪发生在7-9月,积雪主要分布于5000 m以上区域。蒸散发以7-9月中低山区植被覆盖良好的针叶林和草地为主。选用合适的方法对遥感数据进行验证和率定,有助于提高对资料缺失的高寒山区流域水文过程的认识。对不同水文要素进行分析验证,可更准确地理解水资源的转化、储存方式及其时空分布,以便为下游水资源管理提供依据。

关键词: 水文模型, 水文过程, 遥感数据, 叶尔羌河流域

Abstract:

In the desert-oasis ecology system of northwest China, water cycle in the mountain region is very important for the water resources management in downstream regions. To accurately understand the hydrological processes in high altitude and cold mountainous areas, a MIKE SHE model was applied to the Yarkant River Basin based on the remote sensing data of precipitation, temperature, and potential evapotranspiration, and the hydrological processes were analyzed based on the simulated outputs of runoff, snow, and evapotranspiration. The results suggest that the corrected remote sensing data are suitable for hydrological modeling of the Yarkant River Basin. At the Kaqun station, Nash efficiency coefficient and correlation coefficient are 0.71 and 0.85 at the daily scale. The annual mean stream runoff was 146.66 mm, among which base flow was 21.3%. The annual mean snowfall was 231 mm, which accounted for 74% of precipitation; 73.9% of the snowmelt occurred in July to September, and the snow storage is primarily distributed in the elevation zone above 5000 m. The evapotranspiration mainly occurred in the mid-low mountains covered by vegetation in June to September. The satellite data processed by appropriate methods are useful for the hydrological study in high-cold alpine catchments; multiple hydrological components could improve the understanding of water resources’ transition, storage, and distribution, which will contribute to the water resource management in the downstream regions.

Key words: hydrological model, hydrological processes, remote sensing data, Yarkant River Basin