地理科学进展 ›› 2017, Vol. 36 ›› Issue (4): 483-490.doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2017.04.009

• 研究综述 • 上一篇    下一篇

诗歌中物候记录的基本特征及用于历史气候重建的处理方法

刘亚辰1,2(), 方修琦2, 陶泽兴1,2,3, 戴君虎1,*()   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,中国科学院陆地表层格局与模拟重点实验室,北京100101
    2. 北京师范大学地理学与遥感科学学院,北京100875
    3. 中国科学院大学,北京100049
  • 收稿日期:2016-07-01 出版日期:2017-04-20 发布日期:2017-04-20
  • 通讯作者: 戴君虎 E-mail:liuyc@igsnrr.ac.cn;daijh@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:刘亚辰(1988-),男,陕西西安人,博士生,研究方向为物候学与历史气候,E-mail:liuyc@igsnrr.ac.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41427805,41430528,41171043)

Basic features of phenological records in poetry and their usage for reconstructing past climate change

Yachen LIU1,2(), Xiuqi FANG2, Zexing TAO1,2,3, Junhu DAI1,*()   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Land Surface Pattern and Simulation, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    2. School of Geography, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
    3. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2016-07-01 Online:2017-04-20 Published:2017-04-20
  • Contact: Junhu DAI E-mail:liuyc@igsnrr.ac.cn;daijh@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41427805, No.41430528, No.41171043

摘要:

历史物候记录对过去气候变化研究弥足珍贵。诗歌作为历史文献的重要体裁之一,其中的历史物候记录已得到了一定程度的整编和利用。但对诗歌物候记录的特征和处理方法仍缺乏系统的梳理和探讨。本文首先介绍了诗歌中物候记录的内容、特征及其在季节指示和反映农时中的应用,发现诗歌中的物候记录主要包括动物物候、植物物候和周期性气象、水文现象等3种,并呈现出距今越近,经济、社会越发达,记录越多的时空特点。然后,从物候记录筛选、物种鉴别、物候事件发生时间识别、物候期确定等方面总结了历史气候研究中诗歌物候记录的处理方法:①从诗歌的创作背景、文学成分、地理环境分异规律和人为影响等几个方面进行筛选,以保证其中物候记录的有效性;②区分古今动、植物名差异,并将物种鉴定到种;③针对年、月、日缺记的不同情况,依据物候规律和背景资料确定物候事件的发生时间;④根据现代物候观测标准,对诗歌中的文字描述进行归类定级,确定所包含的物候期。以期为诗歌物候记录的提取及其在历史气候研究中的应用提供理论和方法上的借鉴。

关键词: 诗歌, 历史物候, 历史气候变化, 记录提取, 气候重建

Abstract:

Phenological records in historical documents have been proved to be of unique value for studies on past climate change. As a literary genre, poetry includes abundant phenological records that have been extracted and applied to a certain extent. However, the features of phenological records from poems and their processing methods need to be further summarized and discussed systematically. This article first introduces the contents, characteristics, and applications in indicating seasons and reflecting farming season of phenological records from poems. The phenological records in poems can be divided mainly into three categories, namely phenological information of plants, phenological information of animals, and seasonality of meteorological or hydrological events. Relatively more data are found in poems from recent dynasties and developed regions. Four key processing methods of phenological records from poems — data sieving, species identification, chronology recognition, and phenophases definition — are discussed: (1) phenological records extracted from poems need to be sieved based on the background of poems, the usage of rhetorical devices, the rule of territorial differentiation, and the disturbance of factitious factors; (2) modern and ancient names of plants and animals should be distinguished and the species of plants and animals should be identified; (3) phenological dates need to be converted into accurate dates according to phenological law and background information; and (4) phenophases ought to be defined according to the semantics of description in the poems on the basis of modern phenological observation methods. By summarizing and discussing these key issues, this article aims to provide a reference in both theory and method for the extraction and application of phenological records from poems for the reconstruction of past climate.

Key words: poetry, historical phenology, past climate change, record extraction, climate reconstruction