地理科学进展 ›› 2017, Vol. 36 ›› Issue (3): 296-305.doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2017.03.004

• 研究专题:资源环境承载力 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于环境质量标准的环境承载力评价方法及其应用

刘年磊(), 卢亚灵, 蒋洪强*(), 程曦   

  1. 环境保护部环境规划院,国家环境保护环境规划与政策模拟重点实验室,北京 100012
  • 收稿日期:2017-01-01 出版日期:2017-03-20 发布日期:2017-03-20
  • 通讯作者: 蒋洪强 E-mail:liunl@caep.org.cn;jianghq@caep.org.cn
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:刘年磊(1984-),女,辽宁葫芦岛人,副研究员,主要从事环境规划与管理研究,E-mail:liunl@caep.org.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家水体污染控制与治理科技重大专项(2012ZX07601-002);环境保护部财政预算重点项目(2110107);中国科学院科技服务网络计划(STS计划)项目(KFJ-STS-ZDTP-021)

Environmental carrying capacity evaluation methods and application based on environmental quality standards

Nianlei LIU(), Yaling LU, Hongqiang JIANG*(), Xi CHENG   

  1. Chinese Academy of Environment Planning, State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Environmental Planning and Policy Simulation, Beijing 100012, China
  • Received:2017-01-01 Online:2017-03-20 Published:2017-03-20
  • Contact: Hongqiang JIANG E-mail:liunl@caep.org.cn;jianghq@caep.org.cn
  • Supported by:
    National Science and Technology Major Project, No.2012ZX07601-002;Finance Budget Major Project of Ministry of Environmental Protection, No.2110107;Science and Technology Service Network Initiative of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, No.KFJ-STS-ZDTP-021

摘要:

建立资源环境承载能力监测预警机制,是全面深化改革的一项创新性工作。本文从环境承载力评价视角出发,提出了一种基于环境质量标准的环境承载力评价模型,即通过计算污染物浓度超标指数衡量大气、水及综合环境承载力状况,并以京津冀地区为试点开展案例研究。评价结果显示:①环境综合承载力方面,99%的区县超载。②大气环境承载力方面,可吸入颗粒物(PM10)和细颗粒物(PM2.5)是主要污染因子,98%的区县超载;臭氧(O3)和二氧化氮(NO2)的超标状况也非常严重,分别有87%、72%的区县超载。③水环境承载力方面,进行评价的108个区县全部超载,总氮(TN)、溶解氧(DO)、氨氮(NH3-N)和总磷(TP)为主要的超标污染因子。该评价模型以环境质量为基础,客观地反映了环境承载力状态,可广泛应用于中国不同尺度单元环境承载力的评价。

关键词: 环境承载力, 污染物浓度, 环境质量标准, 超标指数, 京津冀地区

Abstract:

Establishing the monitoring and early-warning mechanism of resource and environmental carrying capacity is an innovative work of comprehensive and deepening reforms of China. This research proposed an evaluation model of environmental carrying capacity based on environmental quality standards. This model measures the carrying capacity of atmospheric, water, and the whole environment through calculating the exceeding standard value index of pollutant concentration, and the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region was used as the pilot study area. The conclusions are as follows: (1) The evaluation results of the pilot study area show that 99% of the districts were in the status of overloading. (2) With regard to atmospheric environmental carrying capacity, 98% of the districts were in the status of overloading with PM10 and PM2.5 as the main pollutants. The concentrations of O3 and NO2 also seriously exceeded the values specified in the standards—87% and 72% of the districts were in the status of overloading with these two pollutants, respectively. (3) With respect to water environmental carrying capacity, all 108 districts were in the status of overloading with TN, DO, NH3-N, and TP as the main pollutants. This evaluation model objectively reflects the state of environmental carrying capacity based on the environmental quality. It can potentially be widely applied to the evaluation of environmental carrying capacity in different regions.

Key words: environmental carrying capacity, pollutant concentration, environmental quality standard, exceeding standard value index, Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region