地理科学进展 ›› 2017, Vol. 36 ›› Issue (2): 137-150.doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2017.02.001

• 研究论文 •    下一篇

基于个体生命历程视角的苏南城镇化路径转变与市民化进程

冯健(), 叶竹   

  1. 北京大学城市与环境学院,北京100871
  • 出版日期:2017-02-20 发布日期:2017-02-20
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:冯健(1975-),男,江苏沛县人,博士,副教授,主要从事城市地理研究,E-mail:fengjian@pku.edu.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41671157)

Urban transformation and the progress of citizenization in Southern Jiangsu based on the perspective of life course

Jian FENG(), Zhu YE   

  1. College of Urban and Environmental Science, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
  • Online:2017-02-20 Published:2017-02-20
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41671157

摘要:

本文通过对个体生命历程的考察,从微观视角探讨苏南20世纪80年代以来的城镇化路径转变以及转型中的农民市民化进程。地方政府在中国行政和经济分权、土地、住房等一系列改革中不断追求地方利益最大化,从而促使苏南从早期的以乡村工业化为动力、以小城镇为载体的“自下而上”式城镇化,转向由开发区建设和土地财政所推动的快速城镇化。城镇化路径转变也影响了苏南农民的生命历程,文中个案就经历了从乡镇企业家、私营企业主到失地农民的身份变迁。在苏南农民的市民化进程中,个体经历了不同“行动地位”的转变:乡镇企业时期,农民参与乡村工业,主动进行就业的非农化;但到了征地拆迁时期,农民在政府推动下,通过户籍改革和安置上楼进行了身份的城镇化,这个阶段的市民化,更多源于政府的主动推动,农民带有“被动接受”的成分。另外,早期的就业非农化成为后期村民顺利实现身份城镇化的基础,解决了村民失去土地、安置“上楼”后的经济来源问题,这对当前新型城镇化所倡导的“人的城镇化”具有一定启示。

关键词: 城镇化, 市民化, 生命历程, 生活史, 苏南

Abstract:

Most studies on China's urban transformation employ macro level socioeconomic and political analysis perspectives such as marketization, globalization, and decentralization. Based on the life course of a farmer-entrepreneur in Southern Jiangsu, this study discusses China's urban transformation at a micro level and the citizenization of famers in the transformation. Analyzing urban transformation with a life course approach not only links individuals' life events to changes in grand social history, but also manifests the interaction and maps relations between the history of individuals' lives and the economic and social development. The Southern Jiangsu area has experienced urban transformation since the 1980s. In the 1980s, urbanization of Southern Jiangsu was grounded in rural industrialization and town development, which was called the "urbanization from below." On the one hand, township enterprises had absorbed a large number of rural surplus labors and as a result, a great number of towns appeared. On the other hand, township enterprises provided funding for urban construction. But since the 1990s, Southern Jiangsu has undergone a rapid urbanization stimulated by development zones that attracted foreign investment and land finance. The governments' development strategy turned to development zone construction and land finance. Heavy intervention imposed on township enterprises by local governments hampered the development of those enterprises. Meanwhile, as a consequence of decentralization, institutional changes in the land market, and globalization, the local government of Southern Jiangsu can no longer rely on township enterprises and has to capitalize on the land to pursue the maximization of profit. From the micro level perspective, the transformation influences roles, events, and opportunities in individuals' life course. The farmer-entrepreneur in this study was a factory manager in a township enterprise at first, then he ran a private corporation, and finally, because of the construction of a development zone, he became a landless farmer. Through changes of his life course, we can understand his citizenization. In the township enterprise period, he obtained non-agricultural employment on his own initiative by working in a factory. Later, because of the hukou (population registration) reform and land acquisition and resettlement, he achieved the urbanization of identity, which was mainly promoted by the local government. Non-agricultural employment became the basis of urbanization of his identity, in the sense that it guaranteed his income after resettlement. This finding provides an enlightenment to "people-centered urbanization” advocated in the new urbanization.

Key words: urbanization, citizenization of farmers, life course, life story, Southern Jiangsu