地理科学进展 ›› 2017, Vol. 36 ›› Issue (1): 125-135.doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2017.01.012

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    

城市迁移人口居住空间分异——对深圳市的实证研究

钟奕纯1,2(), 冯健2,*()   

  1. 1. 北京大学城市规划与设计学院,广东深圳 518055
    2. 北京大学城市与环境学院,北京 100871
  • 收稿日期:2016-11-01 出版日期:2017-01-20 发布日期:2017-01-20
  • 通讯作者: 冯健 E-mail:zyc1231995@126.com;fengjian@pku.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:钟奕纯(1995-),女,湖南益阳人,硕士研究生,主要从事城市社会地理研究,E-mail: zyc1231995@126.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41671157,40971085)

Residential spatial differentiation of migrant population within the city: A case study of Shenzhen

Yichun ZHONG1,2(), Jian FENG2,*()   

  1. 1. School of Urban Planning and Design, Peking University, Shenzhen 518055, Guangdong, China
    2. College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
  • Received:2016-11-01 Online:2017-01-20 Published:2017-01-20
  • Contact: Jian FENG E-mail:zyc1231995@126.com;fengjian@pku.edu.cn
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41671157, No.40971085

摘要:

基于深圳市第六次人口普查数据,将迁移人口按照户籍地划分为市内迁移、省内迁移和省际迁移3种类型。通过计算区位熵分析街道迁移人口比重在全市中的水平,并用空间自相关来识别其空间集聚状况,以揭示迁移人口的空间分异格局,进而用分异指数刻画迁移人口的分异程度。然后以街道迁移人口比重为因变量,住房因素和就业因素为自变量,采用OLS模型、空间滞后模型和空间误差模型来分析和解释迁移人口居住空间分异的影响因素。结果表明:①迁移人口区位熵呈现出较为明显的圈层结构分布特征,以南山区和福田区为中心向外依次为市内、省内和省外迁移人口;②迁移人口的居住分布存在空间集聚,市内迁移人口集聚分布在行政中心周围,省内迁移人口集中分布在商业中心周围,省外迁移人口集中分布在工业园区较多的关外街道;③省外迁移人口与本地人口之间的居住分异程度最高;④省外迁移人口的居住空间分布显著地受住房因素的影响,省内迁移人口的居住空间分布则受就业因素的影响,住房和就业因素对市内迁移人口的居住空间分布的影响不显著。

关键词: 迁移人口, 居住空间分异, 住房, 就业, 深圳

Abstract:

This study divided the migrant population in Shenzhen into three groups based on the sixth census data: inter-city migrants, inter-provincial migrants, and intra-provincial migrants. By calculating location quotient, the proportions of migrants in urban sub-districts were compared within the city. Spatial autocorrelation was used to identify spatial agglomeration, and then a differentiation index was used to characterize the degree of differentiation of migrant population. The ordinary least squares (OLS) model, spatial lag model, and spatial error model were used to analyze and explain the influencing factors of the residential spatial differentiation of migrants, taking the proportion of migrant population as the dependent variable and housing and employment factors as the independent variables. The results show that: (1) The location entropy of the migrant population showed a clear circular structure, with inter-city migrants in Nanshan and Futian Districts in the southwest corner at the center, and inter-provincial and intra-provincial migrants outside. (2) Spatial agglomeration has occurred in the residential distribution of migrant population. Inter-city migrants are distributed around the city administrative center; inter-provincial migrants are concentrated around the commercial center; and intra-provincial migrants are concentrated in sub-districts in Guanwai where industrial parks are concentrated in. (3) The highest degree of residential differentiation was found between the intra-provincial migrants and the population with the hukou (population registration) of Shenzhen. (4) Residential spatial distribution of intra-provincial migrants was significantly affected by housing factors, while inter-provincial migrants was significantly affected by employment factors, and inter-city migrants are affected by both housing and employment factors, but less significantly. The regional characteristics of housing and employment led to the settlement of migrants of all types to specific locations of the city, and thus formed the overall pattern of residential spatial differentiation.

Key words: migrant population, residential spatial differentiation, housing, employment, Shenzhen