地理科学进展 ›› 2017, Vol. 36 ›› Issue (1): 99-111.doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2017.01.010

• 研究专题:京津冀协同发展 • 上一篇    下一篇

开发区居住空间特征及其形成机制——对北京经济技术开发区的调查

冯健1(), 项怡之1,2   

  1. 1. 北京大学城市与环境学院,北京 100871
    2. 中国电建集团华东勘测设计研究院,杭州 311122
  • 收稿日期:2016-11-01 出版日期:2017-01-20 发布日期:2017-01-20
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:冯健(1975-),男,江苏沛县人,博士,副教授,主要从事城市地理研究,E-mail: fengjian@pku.edu.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41671157,40971085)

Characteristics of residential space of development zone and formation mechanism: An investigation of Beijing Economic-Technological Development Area

Jian FENG1(), Yizhi XIANG1,2   

  1. 1. College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
    2. Power China Huadong Engineering Corporation, Hangzhou 311122, China
  • Received:2016-11-01 Online:2017-01-20 Published:2017-01-20
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41671157, No.40971085

摘要:

利用北京经济技术开发区的第一手问卷调查数据,研究开发区居住空间特征及其形成机制。研究表明:开发区居住人口收入和受教育程度相对较高,外来人口已成为开发区后期居住人口增长的主要动力来源;开发区的住房类型构成呈现多样化特点,政策和住房户型原因是影响住宅分化的重要因素;开发区在收入和社会阶层方面存在居住分化现象,具体表现为高收入和低社会阶层两级分化的空间隔离;作为新兴的郊区社区,开发区居民维权意识强烈,但社区联系较弱;上班通勤距离仍是影响居民居住地选择的最重要因素,改善居住环境、对优质教育资源的追求也是极重要的因素。最后,从居民、开发商、地方政府、企业、母城及周边区域等多元主体共同作用的角度探讨了开发区居住空间的形成机制。当前,国内开发区大多面临从“产业功能地域”向综合型的“城市化功能地域”转型,但开发区既是“产业集聚区”又被作为“卧城”的复杂状况,也带来其居住空间特征及形成机制的复杂性。研究成果对于丰富城市居住空间理论有重要意义。

关键词: 开发区, 居住空间, 居住分异, 郊区化, 北京经济技术开发区

Abstract:

Using primary data from a questionnaire survey of Beijing Economic-Technological Development Area (BDA), this study examined the characteristics of residential space of development zone and its formation mechanism. The study found that both the income and education levels of residents of development zones are higher compared to the general population. Immigration has been the most important source of population increase. The types of housing in development zone are diversified, and government policies and size of housing are important factors that caused the development of residential differentiation. Differences in income and social stratus have resulted in spatial segregation of residents of higher and lower incomes. As new suburban communities, in development zones the awareness of rights of resident is strongly while the community connection is week among the residents of these communities. Distance of commuting is the most important factor that affects the residential location choice in development zones. Living environment and quality of education resources are also important factors. In order to analyze the characteristics of residential space of development zones, a theoretical framework of formation mechanism is put forward that considers multiple stakeholders including residents, real estate developer, local government, enterprises, parent city, and surrounding districts. At present, most economic-technological development areas are facing the transformation from areas of industrial function to urbanized functional area. These areas are industrial agglomerations or residential towns, even isolated cities, which creates a complex situation. As a result, the residential space and its formation mechanism are very complex. This is significant for understanding and developing the theories of urban residential space.

Key words: development zone, residential space, residential differentiation, suburbanization, Beijing Economic-Technological Development Area (BDA)