地理科学进展 ›› 2016, Vol. 35 ›› Issue (11): 1369-1380.doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2016.11.007

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基于地级市尺度的中国外资空间动态与本土产业演化

罗芊1,2(), 贺灿飞1,2,*(), 郭琪1   

  1. 1. 北京大学城市与环境学院,北京 100871
    2. 北京大学—林肯研究院,城市发展与土地政策研究中心,北京 100871;
  • 出版日期:2016-11-25 发布日期:2016-11-25
  • 通讯作者: 贺灿飞 E-mail:luoqian9306@163.com;hecanfei@urban.pku.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:罗芊(1993-),女,黑龙江哈尔滨人,硕士研究生,研究方向为经济地理,E-mail:luoqian9306@163.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家杰出青年科学基金项目(41425001);国家自然科学基金项目(41271130)

Interaction between the spatial dynamics of foreign direct investment and domestic industrial change in Chinese prefecture-level cities

Qian LUO1,2(), Canfei HE1,2,*(), Qi GUO1   

  1. 1. College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
    2. Peking University-Lincoln Institute Center for Urban Development and Land Policy, Beijing 100871, China
  • Online:2016-11-25 Published:2016-11-25
  • Contact: Canfei HE E-mail:luoqian9306@163.com;hecanfei@urban.pku.edu.cn
  • Supported by:
    National Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars, No.41425001;National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41271130

摘要:

伴随着全球化不断深入,国际劳动分工体系下全球生产网络逐步形成,推动跨国公司以外资直接投资为途径在全球范围内寻找有利区位。低廉的要素成本、友好的政策制度以及广阔的潜在市场使得发展中国家成为外资活跃的重要地区。外资空间动态不仅涉及发展中国家对接全球生产网络的效果,更关系到其生产格局的演变。而演化理论下的技术邻近度也会对外资空间动态和本土产业演化产生作用,使之呈现出更多样的空间差异。本文基于1998-2008年中国337个地级市的制造业数据,研究内、外资技术邻近度作用下外资空间动态对本土产业演化的影响,研究发现:①外资进入、退出等空间动态显著促进了中国本土产业演化,其中中西部最强,东部最弱,东北地区外资进入作用相对明显。②技术邻近度削弱了外资空间动态对本土产业演化的积极影响,但具体到不同区域也会出现差异。东部地区的技术关联反而有利于外资进入带来的知识溢出和外资退出带来的资源释放,表现为典型的“战略耦合”。而中部、西部和东北地区的技术关联则成为阻碍外资进入、退出促进内资产业发展的重要原因。

关键词: 全球生产网络, 演化经济地理, 外资空间动态, 本土产业演化, 技术邻近度, 中国

Abstract:

Technological progress and institutional change are key drivers for industrial development. The rapid development of information and communication technology has weakened the demand of industrial production for local resources and promoted the free flow of capital, knowledge, labor, and other factors of production in a wider area. The "temporal and spatial compression" formed by technological evolution has further changed the pattern of global interests and led to institutional reform aimed at regional integration and trade liberalization. This loosens the restriction of trade costs on location options for productive activities and provides more possibilities for cross-regional production linkages and the establishment of global production network (GPN). With the formation of GPN, transnational enterprises (TNE) tend to locate in regions with cheaper labor cost, more preferential policies, and greater market potential in order to optimize their cost-benefit of operation on a global scale by means of foreign direct investment (FDI). Under this trend, developing countries become essential destinations for FDI, which in return makes FDI a key factor that affects the industrial change of host countries through spillover and competition effects, for example. Technological proximity between foreign and domestic parts in one industry also contributes to enhancing or weakening the effects of spillover and competition, then influences the interaction between the spatial dynamics of foreign direct investment and domestic industrial change, and further exerts impacts on regional economic growth. Based on the theories of global production network and Evolutionary Economic Geography and using four-digit manufacturing data of China's prefectural-level cities in ASIFs from 1998 to 2008, this study analyzed the interaction between FDI spatial dynamics (including FDI enterprise entry and FDI enterprises exit) and domestic industrial change and the impact of technological proximity on FDI spatial dynamics and domestic industrial change by using qualitative and quantitative analysis methods. The results show that the entry and exit of TNEs both induced change of domestic industries, while the spatial dynamics of FDI demonstrated the most significant effect in central and western China, followed by eastern cities. FDI entry contributed more in promoting domestic industrial change than FDI exit in the Northeastern. Technological proximity between domestic industries and FDI industries mostly weakened the positive effect of different spatial dynamics of FDI on domestic industrial change, except for the entry of FDI during 1998-2003. From a regional perspective, technological proximity in eastern cities showed positive effect on both entry and exit of FDI, suggesting a typical example of "strategic coupling." On the other hand, in middle, western and northeastern cities, higher technological relatedness has become an essential reason that prevents FDI from promoting the development of domestic industries.

Key words: global production network, evolutionary economic geography, spatial dynamic of FDI, domestic industrial change, technological proximity, China