地理科学进展 ›› 2016, Vol. 35 ›› Issue (8): 997-1007.doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2016.08.009

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非物质文化遗产资源旅游开发价值评价体系与应用——以苏州市为例

张希月1,2,3(), 虞虎1,3,**(), 陈田1,3, 王新歌1,2,3, 王甫园1,2,3   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101
    2. 中国科学院大学,北京 100049
    3. 中国科学院区域可持续发展分析与模拟重点实验室,北京 100101
  • 出版日期:2016-08-25 发布日期:2016-08-25
  • 通讯作者: 虞虎 E-mail:zhangxiyue2013@163.com;yuhuashd@126.com
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:张希月(1989-),女,河北保定人,博士生,主要从事旅游地理与旅游规划研究,E-mail:zhangxiyue2013@163.com

  • 基金资助:
    教育部人文社会科学基金项目(14YJC630146);国家科技支撑计划项目(2014BAL07B02)

Evaluation of tourism development value of intangible culture heritage resources:A case study of Suzhou City

Xiyue ZHANG1,2,3(), Hu YU1,*(), Tian CHEN1, Xinge WANG1,2,3, Fuyuan WANG1,2,3   

  1. 1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
    3. Key Laboratory of Regional Sustainable Development Modeling, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
  • Online:2016-08-25 Published:2016-08-25
  • Contact: Hu YU E-mail:zhangxiyue2013@163.com;yuhuashd@126.com
  • Supported by:
    Humanities and Social Science Foundation of the Ministry of Education of China, No.14YJC630146;National Science and Technology Support Program of China, No.2014BAL07B02

摘要:

旅游开发提高非物质文化遗产的自我生存能力,使其摆脱濒危的困境,是非物质文化遗产保护与利用的重要方式。本文对非物质文化遗产资源旅游开发研究进行梳理,在此基础上,构建了非物质文化遗产资源旅游开发价值评价指标体系,即由资源禀赋条件、可展示与体验性、遗产地旅游发展条件3个方面的要素组成,并以非物质文化遗产资源富集的苏州为例,对省级以上非物质文化遗产进行了评价,共评出三级旅游资源3项、二级旅游资源16项、一级旅游资源29项。主要结论为:产品衍生性、展示适宜性、是否具备可观赏性、遗产保护情况决定了非物质文化遗产资源是否能够成为旅游资源;可展示与体验性决定了非物质文化遗产旅游资源的旅游开发价值水平高低。手工艺类、民俗类非物质文化遗产具有较高的旅游开发价值,民间文学、传统体育游艺与杂技和传统医药的旅游可开发性较差。本文构建的非物质文化遗产旅游开发价值评价体系可为旅游地进行非物质文化遗产资源筛选和旅游开发提供科学依据。

关键词: 非物质文化遗产, 旅游开发价值, 指标体系, 层次分析法, 苏州

Abstract:

Tourism development is an important way to protect and utilize intangible cultural heritage resources. This study defined the concept of intangible cultural heritage resource tourism development, discussed the characteristics of intangible tourism resources, and formed the indicator system of intangible cultural heritage resource development potential based on characteristics of the resources, including resource endowment, possibility for visual display and experience, tourism development conditions in the heritage site, and other factors. Indicators of the evaluation include value of the heritage, cultural influence of the heritage, inheritance status, innovation ability, product derivation, tourist experience, visual display, target group attracted, and other influencing factors of intangible cultural heritage resource development. A total of 28 indicators and indices were selected and organized into five levels, including target, comprehensive evaluation, element evaluation, factor evaluation, and evaluation indicator, and they were weighted. The three comprehensive evaluation indices are experience (with a weight of 0.4211), tourism development conditions in the heritage site (with a weight of 0.3504), and resource endowment (with a weight of 0.2285), indicating that visual display and experience of resources is the most important factor influencing the potential of intangible cultural heritage resource tourism development. For the operationalization of the indicator system, a resource scoring table was put forward. Taking Suzhou City as an example, intangible cultural heritage resources of the provincial level and above were evaluated, among which three were classified as level three tourism resources, 16 as level two tourism resources, and 29 as level one tourism resources, and 41 are without value for tourism development. The results show that derivative products, suitability for visual display, level of appeal, and heritage protection situation produce an effect on whether the intangible resources can become tourist resources; comprehensive evaluation decisively influences the potential of tourism resources for tourism development. Intangible cultural heritage of handicraft and folk custom are of high tourism development potential and intangible cultural heritage resource of folklore, traditional sports and entertainment, acrobatics and traditional medicine are of low tourism development potential. Empirical research proves that the intangible cultural heritage resource tourism development potential indicator system developed in this research is useful and can provide scientific support for tourism destinations to assess intangible cultural heritage resources and develop tourism.

Key words: intangible cultural heritage, tourism development potential, indicator system, Analytic Hierarchy Process, Suzhou City