地理科学进展 ›› 2016, Vol. 35 ›› Issue (7): 898-909.doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2016.07.011

• 研究综述 • 上一篇    下一篇

游荡性河流演变规律研究进展及其河型归属探讨

解哲辉1,2, 黄河清1,*(), 周园园1, 张敏1,2,3   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,陆地水循环与地表过程院重点实验室,北京 100101
    2. 中国科学院大学,北京 100049
    3. 黄河水利科学研究院泥沙研究所,郑州 450003
  • 收稿日期:2016-02-01 修回日期:2016-05-01 出版日期:2016-07-20 发布日期:2016-07-20
  • 通讯作者: 黄河清 E-mail:huanghq@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:解哲辉(1986-),女,河北定州人,博士研究生,主要从事流水地貌研究,E-mail: xiezh.14b@igsnrr.ac.cn

  • 基金资助:
    基金项目:国家自然科学基金重点项目(41330751); 国家国际科技合作专项项目(2013DFA91700);国家自然科学基金项目(51179181)

Progress on the study of fluvial process of wandering rivers and discussion about its channel pattern classification

Zhehui XIE1,2, Heqing HUANG1,*(), Yuanyuan ZHOU1, Min ZHANG1,2,3   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Water Cycle and Related Land Surface Processes, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
    3. Yellow River Institute of Hydraulic Research, Zhengzhou 450003, China
  • Received:2016-02-01 Revised:2016-05-01 Online:2016-07-20 Published:2016-07-20
  • Contact: Heqing HUANG E-mail:huanghq@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • Supported by:
    Foundation: Key Program of National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41330751; International Science & Technology Cooperation Program of China, No.2013DFA91700; National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.51179181

摘要:

游荡性河道在中国广泛分布,其中以黄河下游上段最为典型,但关于游荡性河型的归属问题尚存在很大争议,国际上多将游荡性河流归属为辫状河型。本文以黄河下游游荡性河道为典型案例,系统总结了游荡性河流的演变特征、主要影响因素和形成机理,并从定义、成因、特征及河道形成过程方面,将游荡与辫状河型的异同点进行对比分析。得到以下启示:游荡性河型是一种重要的河道型态,与辫状河型在许多方面存在较明显差异。特别是游荡河型主要发育于能量小于输沙需求的环境,因而形态呈现不稳定特性,但辫状河型不仅出现在能量较多的环境,而且也常在能量较小的环境中出现,因而一部分具有稳定形态,另一部分则表现出不稳定的特性,因此,有必要对游荡性河道和辫状河道给予区分。最后对未来研究进行了展望,提出应重视河型形成的内在机理,对能量理论进行发展及深化,进一步系统性评价游荡性河道与辫状河道的异同性,以解决游荡性河道的河型归属问题。

关键词: 游荡河型, 辫状河型, 河型分类, 能量耗散, 研究进展

Abstract:

Wandering rivers frequently occur in China, especially in northern China, with the wandering reach of the lower Yellow River as the most typical case. However, controversy concerning their channel pattern classification remains. While such rivers are widely regarded as wandering or wandering-braided channel in China, they are categorized as braiding rivers largely by the international geomorphological community. In this article, the wandering reach of the lower Yellow River is taken as an example and the evolutionary characteristics of channel morphology is summarized, focusing on the factors influenced the channel evolution in different periods. Based on the summary, a comparison is made between braiding and wandering rivers, including their channel definitions, morphological features, sediment characteristics, forming processes, and energy expenditure features. Especially, the wandering channel pattern mainly develops in a low energy slope environment that is far less than the minimum energy slope required for transporting sediment load. So it usually presents unstable features. The braided channel pattern can exist where river energy is lower or higher than the minimum energy slope. Therefore, it is essential to distinguish these two channel patterns. The article also discusses prospects for studies in the future and points out that focusing on the physical mechanisms for channel formation, developing and refining the energy theory, and examining the differences and similarities of wandering channel and braided channel systematically can help to solve the problem of classifiying wandering rivers.

Key words: wandering rivers, braiding rivers, channel pattern classification, energy expenditure mechanism, research progress