地理科学进展 ›› 2016, Vol. 35 ›› Issue (3): 368-375.doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2016.03.011

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

旅游研究中的问卷调查法应用规范

张志华(), 章锦河*(), 刘泽华, 郑艺, 杨嫚   

  1. 南京大学国土资源与旅游学系,南京 210023
  • 收稿日期:2015-06-01 接受日期:2015-09-01 出版日期:2016-03-25 发布日期:2016-03-25
  • 通讯作者: 章锦河 E-mail:zzh2008nju@126.com;zhangjinhe@nju.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:张志华(1990-),男,江西上饶人,硕士研究生,主要从事旅游地理及旅游规划研究,E-mail: zzh2008nju@126.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41271161)

Application standard of questionnaire survey in tourism research

Zhihua ZHANG(), Jinhe ZHANG*(), Zehua LIU, Yi ZHENG, Man YANG   

  1. Department of Land Resources and Tourism Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, China
  • Received:2015-06-01 Accepted:2015-09-01 Online:2016-03-25 Published:2016-03-25
  • Contact: Jinhe ZHANG E-mail:zzh2008nju@126.com;zhangjinhe@nju.edu.cn
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41271161

摘要:

问卷调查法是旅游研究的重要手段与方法,然而在实际研究中,应用问卷调查法往往存在规范性不足的问题。本文以国内四大核心期刊的468篇涉及问卷调查法的旅游研究论文为研究样本,通过对问卷调查研究中的问卷设计、样本代表性、统计分析等方面的梳理分析,发现问卷调查法在旅游研究中的应用存在如下问题和不足:①问卷设计规范意识不强,缺乏对问卷设计的理论基础和问卷的试测与修正的必要描述;②样本的代表性不明,缺乏对抽样方法、问卷回收率、样本规模确定的必要说明;③问卷数据统计分析方法的选择与调查目的不匹配,缺乏对数据信度与效度的检验。本文据此及相关文献归纳总结,提出了旅游研究中问卷调查法的应用规范。

关键词: 旅游研究, 问卷调查, 应用规范, 研究方法

Abstract:

Questionnaire survey is an important means and method for tourism study. However, when employing questionnaire survey in tourism research, there has been a general lack of concern for standardization. This article reports the findings from an analysis of 468 articles that used questionnaire survey, in four major Chinese journals in area of tourism, from 2005-2014. Based on information retrieval and statistical analysis, this study found that the number of articles employing questionnaire survey showed an increasing trend from 2005-2014, and questionnaire survey was broadly applied in all areas of tourism study. It also found problems in the application of questionnaire survey in tourism study, including: (1) The awareness for standardization of questionnaire design was low, some articles lacked necessary description of theoretical basis for the questionnaire design and test and correction of questionnaires. Only 51.71% of the 468 articles described the theoretical basis for questionnaire design normatively, and 29.06% have done the pretest and correction of questionnaires, indicating that tourism researchers did not pay as much attention to questionnaire design as we might have thought. (2) Representativeness of the samples was often unknown due to lack of introduction of sampling method, questionnaire survey respond rate, and sample size. About 64% of the 468 articles did not report the sampling method, and 26.71% did not report the respond rate. Meanwhile, 66.88% of the 468 articles' questionnaire surveys had a respond rate of above 70%, indicating an acceptable level. With regard to sample size, 66.88% of the 468 articles had a sample size of above 200 owing to the requirement of statistical analysis of the data. (3) Statistical analysis of survey data should be more normative and some articles lacked data reliability and validity test. Around 46% of the 468 articles lacked data reliability test and 52.78% lacked of data validity test. With regard to statistical analysis methods, we found that only 29.28% of the articles employed descriptive statistical methods and 70.72% employed inferential statistical methods, indicating that all kinds of inferential statistical methods were needed to explain and illustrate complicated tourism phenomena. Based on these analyses, this article puts forward a general framework for the application of questionnaire survey in future tourism study.

Key words: tourism study, questionnaire survey, application standard, research methods