地理科学进展 ›› 2016, Vol. 35 ›› Issue (2): 195-203.doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2016.02.006

• 研究论文| 区域与城市 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国城市贫困的空间差异特征

袁媛1(), 古叶恒1, 陈志灏2   

  1. 1. 中山大学地理科学与规划学院/中山大学城市化研究院,广东省城市化与地理环境空间模拟重点实验室,广州 510275
    2. 广州市白云区国土资源和规划局;广州 510405
  • 收稿日期:2014-11-01 接受日期:2015-05-01 出版日期:2016-02-10 发布日期:2016-02-10
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:袁媛(1976-),女,浙江绍兴人,教授,主要从事城市贫困、社区规划等研究,E-mail:yyuanah@163.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41071106);中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金项目(15lgjc38)

Spatial differentiation of urban poverty of Chinese cities

Yuan YUAN1(), Yeheng GU1, Zhihao CHEN2   

  1. 1. School of Geography and Planning, Urbanization Institute, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangdong Key Laboratory for Urbanization and Geo-simulation, Guangzhou 510275, China
    2. Bureau of Land Resource and Urban Planning of Baiyun District of Guangzhou, Guangzhou 510405, China
  • Received:2014-11-01 Accepted:2015-05-01 Online:2016-02-10 Published:2016-02-10
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41071106;Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, No.15lgjc38

摘要:

本文研究了2007-2011年间中国352个地级及以上城市贫困的空间演化、分布的差异特征。结果显示:近5年来贫困人口总量略有增长,贫困人口分布整体呈现均衡化趋势;从区域看,西部地区的城市贫困人口集聚加剧,贫困加深区较多;从城市看,小城市、资源型城市和少数民族聚居型城市是构成贫困加深区的主要类型。2011年,贫困发生率自东向西逐渐升高,中小城市、资源型城市和少数民族聚居型城市相对拥有更高的贫困发生率。进一步分析,东北地区资源型城市呈现高人均GDP和高贫困发生率的“隐藏性贫困”,西南地区部分少数民族聚居型城市呈现低人均GDP和相对低贫困发生率的“特殊性低贫”。未来国家反贫困政策应该充分考虑城市的区位、资源条件、人口规模和构成特征,重点关注贫困加深地区的中小城市、资源型城市和少数民族聚居型城市,并解决经济发展和贫困之间的特殊关系。

关键词: 城市贫困, 空间差异, 分布和演变, 隐藏性贫困和特殊性低贫, 中国

Abstract:

Under the background of socioeconomic transition and urbanization in China, regional disparity of urban poverty attracts increasingly more attention of Chinese scholars. Based on poverty data from 352 cities (including prefecture-level cities, prefecture-level districts, autonomous prefectures and leagues) from 2007-2011, this study examines the spatial evolution and distribution of urban poverty, as well as the differences between poverty and economic underdevelopment in China. During the five years between 2007 and 2011, the total number and ratio of urban poor have slightly increased. At the regional level, urban population in poverty and areas where poverty situation has aggravated increased sharply in the western region. Most cities in the eastern area have improved in poverty concentration, while the majority of cities in the western area have deteriorated over this period. At the city level, small cities, resource-based cities, and minority population concentrated cities have also deteriorated. In 2011, poverty ratio showed an increasing trend from east to west. Small and medium-size cities, resource-based cities, and minority population concentrated cities had higher poverty ratio. In resource-based cities in the northeast, there were high poverty ratios but the per capita GDP was high, and the areas were characterized by an "invisible urban poverty". In minority population concentrated cities in the southwest, there were low poverty ratios with low per capita GDP, and the areas were characterized by a "low poverty rate urban poverty". In the future, anti-poverty policymaking should take into consideration location, development condition, and demographic characters of cities. Anti-poverty policies should focus on small and medium-size cities, resource-based cities, and minority population concentrated cities in areas where the urban poverty situation is aggravating and balance the relationship between urban poverty reduction and economic development.

Key words: urban poverty, spatial differentiation, spatial distribution and evolution, invisible urban poverty, low poverty rate urban poverty, China