地理科学进展 ›› 2015, Vol. 34 ›› Issue (10): 1288-1296.doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2015.10.009

• 模型与遥感应用 • 上一篇    下一篇

数字高程模型在活动断层位置及地表变形变位特征提取研究中的应用

张欣欣()   

  1. 浙江大学地球科学系,杭州 310027
  • 收稿日期:2015-02-01 接受日期:2015-05-01 出版日期:2015-10-20 发布日期:2015-10-20
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:张欣欣(1990-),女,山西临汾人,硕士生,主要研究方向为地理信息系统(GIS)应用,E-mail: ZhxCynthia@163.com

  • 基金资助:
    教育部博士点基金项目(20120101110052);国家自然科学基金项目(41472174)

DEM application in the extraction of active fault location and active fault surface deformation features

Xinxin ZHANG()   

  1. Department of Earth Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China
  • Received:2015-02-01 Accepted:2015-05-01 Online:2015-10-20 Published:2015-10-20

摘要:

活动断层的位置分布及其地表变形变位特征的准确识别是研究和评价活动断层的基础,国内外学者利用数字高程模型(DEM)对断层提取进行了大量研究。本文基于DEM的活动断层位置的提取方法进行综述,总结了DEM提取断层位置的地貌形态特征分析、图像处理以及综合处理提取方法,突出介绍了高分辨率DEM在详细的断层位置分布提取中的优势,DEM在断层地表变形变位及其特征参数提取研究中的最新应用进展。随着高分辨率DEM的快速发展,DEM及其空间分析技术已成为一种常见的地学研究方法,将其与野外调查、遥感、测年等技术结合进行综合分析,能够促进对活动断层的深入研究,并成为断层定量化研究强有力的技术手段。

关键词: 数字高程模型(DEM), 激光雷达, 活动断层, 地表变形变位特征

Abstract:

Extraction of active fault location and active fault surface deformation features is essential for the study of active fault systems, and a large number of studies have been carried out on fault extraction based on Digital Elevation Model (DEM). This article summarizes the active fault extraction methods using DEM of lower than 30 m resolution and very-high resolution DEM, such as Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) DEM and Structure from Motion (SfM) DEM. The fault extraction methods can be divided mainly into three categories: geomorphic feature interpretation, image interpretation and multiple interpretation. Geomorphic feature interpretation is based on GIS spatial analyses. Image interpretation identifies faults by examining linear variation of surface deformation through image processing algorithms. Multiple interpretation combines the above two methods with remote sensing image processing. Meanwhile, this article reviews the most recent progress in the extraction of surface deformation features using DEM, and enumerates the extraction of fault scarp and deformed drainage characteristics. With the progress in high-resolution DEM, DEM and its spatial analysis techniques have become a conventional geoscience research method. The integration of this method with field research, remote sensing, and dating techniques can provide a strong technical support to quantitative study in fault research.

Key words: Digital Elevation Model (DEM), LiDAR DEM, active fault, surface deformation of fault