地理科学进展 ›› 2015, Vol. 34 ›› Issue (8): 987-997.doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2015.08.006

• 城市地理 • 上一篇    下一篇

国内外城市型政区设置研究进展与展望

朱建华1,2(), 王开泳1*(), 陈田1   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101
    2. 中国科学院大学,北京 100049
  • 出版日期:2015-08-25 发布日期:2015-08-25
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:朱建华(1988-),男,江苏海安人,博士研究生,主要研究方向为城市地理与行政区划,E-mail: zjh198827@163.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金重点项目(41471126)

Progress and prospects of city-type administrative region setting-up in China and abroad

ZHU Jianhua1,2(), WANG Kaiyong1,*(), CHEN Tian1   

  1. 1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Online:2015-08-25 Published:2015-08-25
  • Contact: WANG Kaiyong E-mail:zjh198827@163.com;wangky@igsnrr.ac.cn

摘要:

政区设置的科学性与合理性,关系到行政管理效率和政权的稳定性,因此受到世界各国的普遍重视。城市型政区的设置与调整是城镇化发展进程的客观要求,城市型政区不仅包括直辖市、地级市、县级市等各级城市,还包含市辖区、建制镇和街道等。建制市是城市型政区的主要类型,中国的建制市仅有百年历史,却有着极其复杂的演变过程,尤其是改革开放以来,随着城市数量的快速增加,城市型政区设置变化较大。本文在辨析城市型政区相关概念与内涵的基础上,重点分析了城市型政区的演变过程、设置模式、层级与管辖幅度,并对国内外城市型政区的研究方法进行了梳理与总结。在此基础上,评述了国内外城市型政区研究的主要特征与存在的不足,得出以下启示:合理设置城市型政区、创新大都市区管理体制以及减少城市行政层级。最后,通过对国内外城市型政区的行政区划研究进展的总结,对未来的研究方向提出了展望。

关键词: 行政区划, 城市型政区, 研究进展, 启示

Abstract:

Administrative divisions are the basis of local administration of countries and important national system of local governance. Sound administrative division contributes to efficiency of administration and stability of governments. Therefore, administrative division has received wide attention around the world. Administrative regions are divided into regional-type and city-type, where regional-type administrative region covers mainly rural areas while city-type administrative region is predominately urban. The setting-up and adjustment of city-type administrative regions are inevitable requirements of urban development. City-type administrative regions include not only all levels of cities such as municipalities, prefecture-level cities, and county-level cities, but also municipal districts, towns, and neighborhoods. Based on the analysis of the concept and connotation of city-type administrative region, this article focuses on the evolution process, setting-up modes, levels, and jurisdiction of city-type administrative regions. It also summarizes research methods of city-type administrative regions in China and abroad, which gradually changed from qualitative to quantitative. Formed city is the main kind of city-type administrative regions. From a global perspective, modern city originated during the British Industrial Revolution. The emergence of formed city was marked by the "City of Autonomy" enacted in 1835. Formed city developed from one hundred years ago in China and has had an extremely complex process of evolution. Before the reform and opening up of the late 1970s, the speed of development was slow but after that time, the number of cities increased rapidly. In 1997, the State Council called off the conversion of counties to cities, and the number of cities stopped growing. Cities abroad can be as small as having a few thousand residents but in China, given its large population, a city must have at least 80,000 people. Many Chinese towns have more than 100,000 residents. Therefore, some scholars have recommend reform of "town to city" conversion. Cities in Western countries in general have equal legal status, but Chinese cities have a four-level administrative hierarchy: formed cities are divided into provincial-level, sub-provincial-level, prefecture-level, and county-level cities. Jurisdiction area of cities in Western countries is small but in China the area is large. This article reviews the characteristics and shortcomings of city-type administrative division research in China and abroad. Studies suggest that setting up city-type administrative regions based on national and local conditions, innovating the management system in metropolitan areas, and reducing administrative levels of cities should be the direction for future reform. At last, this article examines prospects of future research on city-type administrative division.

Key words: administrative division, city-type administrative region, research progress, lessons