地理科学进展 ›› 2015, Vol. 34 ›› Issue (5): 589-597.doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2015.05.007

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中国沿边口岸的时空格局及功能模式

宋周莺1,2,3, 车姝韵4, 王姣娥1,2, 郑蕾1,2,5   

  1. 1. 中国科学院区域可持续发展分析与模拟重点实验室,北京 100101
    2. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101
    3. 中国西南地缘环境与边疆发展协同创新中心,昆明 650500
    4. 北京师范大学地理学与遥感科学学院,北京 100875
    5. 中国科学院大学,北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2015-04-01 修回日期:2015-05-01 出版日期:2015-06-17 发布日期:2015-06-17
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:宋周莺(1983-),女,浙江缙云人,博士,副研究员,主要从事经济地理、区域发展和信息化相关研究,E-mail: songzy@igsnrr.ac.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(71441034,71441037);中国科学院STS项目(KFJ-EW-STS-003)

Spatiotemporal distribution and functions of border ports in China

Zhouying SONG1,2,3, Shuyun CHE4, Jiaoe WANG1,2, Lei ZHENG1,2,5   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Regional Sustainable Development Modeling, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    2. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    3. Collaborative Innovation Center for Geopolitical Setting of Southwest China and Borderland Development, Kunming 650500, China
    4. School of Geography, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
    5. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2015-04-01 Revised:2015-05-01 Online:2015-06-17 Published:2015-06-17

摘要:

沿边口岸是中国对外开放的重要门户,是“一带一路”战略的重要平台;而“一带一路”的实施也必将给沿边口岸带来巨大的发展机遇。中国沿边口岸的发展已引起学术界的重视,但现有研究主要集中在空间分布及发展模式等方面,关于中国沿边口岸体系形成的时空规律及口岸功能的研究还较少。本文通过大量的数据分析,从地理学角度刻画中国沿边口岸发展的时空格局,并基于RCI模型定量分析沿边口岸对沿边地区的带动作用。研究发现,建国后中国沿边口岸发展可以分为平稳对外开放、加速对外开放、全方位对外开放3个阶段;目前,沿边口岸以公路口岸为主,内河口岸、铁路口岸和航空口岸为辅;空间上主要集中分布在中俄、中蒙、中哈和中朝边境。另外,RCI结果显示,中国大部分沿边口岸对城市发展的带动作用不突出,“过货化”现象比较明显。

关键词: 沿边口岸, 时空格局, RCI指数, 口岸城市, 中国

Abstract:

Border ports play a substantial role in socioeconomic exchanges that reflect the diplomatic relations between neighboring countries. As a platform for cooperation and opening-up, the Belt and Road Initiative will boost the development of border ports. This article maps and analyzes the evolution process of border ports in China since the 1930s with regard to their spatial distribution, transport modes, and flows of cargo and people. Based on the relative concentration index (RCI), five function types of border ports are summarized according to the functions and development levels of border ports and cities. The results of the spatiotemporal distribution analysis show that there were three stages and two peak periods for the opening of border ports in China since the beginning of the 1950s. The opening of border ports is closely related to the bilateral relations with neighboring countries and complementarities of natural resources and economic development, as well as foreign policies. Nearly half of the border ports in China have limited urban functions due to the adverse natural environment and small population size. The findings of this study may help to understand the development of the border port system that is an important part of the Belt and Road Initiative of China.

Key words: border ports, spatio-temporal distribution, relative concentration index (RCI), border cities, China