地理科学进展 ›› 2015, Vol. 34 ›› Issue (5): 571-580.doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2015.05.005

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中国与“一带一路”沿线国家贸易的商品格局

公丕萍1,2,3, 宋周莺1,2,,A;*(), 刘卫东1,2   

  1. 1. 中国科学院区域可持续发展分析与模拟重点实验室,北京 100101
    2. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101
    3. 中国科学院大学,北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2015-04-01 修回日期:2015-05-01 出版日期:2015-06-17 发布日期:2015-06-17
  • 通讯作者: 宋周莺 E-mail:songzy@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:公丕萍(1989-),女,山东临沂人,博士研究生,主要从事经济地理及区域发展研究,E-mail: gongpp.11s@igsnrr.ac.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(71441034);中国科学院重点部署项目(KZZD-EW-06-02)

Commodity structure of trade between China and countries in the Belt and Road Initiative area

Peiping GONG1,2,3, Zhouying SONG1,2,*(), Weidong LIU1,2   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Regional Sustainable Development Modeling, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    2. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    3. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 10049, China
  • Received:2015-04-01 Revised:2015-05-01 Online:2015-06-17 Published:2015-06-17
  • Contact: Zhouying SONG E-mail:songzy@igsnrr.ac.cn

摘要:

经贸合作是“一带一路”建设的重点内容之一。研究中国与“一带一路”沿线国家的经贸合作演变特点及格局,对于促进沿线各国经济繁荣与区域经济合作,实现“贸易畅通”具有重要意义。本文在文献回顾的基础上,基于大量的数据分析,梳理了2001年以来中国与沿线国家贸易的商品结构演化历程,并采用显性比较优势指数、敏感性行业度量及k值聚类算法等,对中国与沿线国家贸易商品结构及格局进行了深入分析。研究结果显示:①中国对沿线国家的出口商品结构有所优化,进口商品结构日趋集中,能源及劳动密集型产品比重上升;②中国与沿线国家贸易的商品结构与各国出口优势行业基本一致;③中国与经济规模相对较小且产业结构较为单一的国家存在一些敏感性行业,出口方面涉及服装鞋帽、矿物制品及交通运输设备等,进口主要涉及能源、矿砂及一些资源初级加工品;④由于国内各省发展差距明显,中国出口商品的空间连续性较差。

关键词: “一带一路”沿线国家, 商品结构, 贸易格局, 中国

Abstract:

Economic cooperation is one of the priority areas in the "Belt and Road Initiative" proposed by China. It is important to examine the characteristics and patterns of development of trade between China and countries in the "Belt and Road Initiative" area, for achieving "unimpeded trade" and promoting economic prosperity and regional cooperation. Under this background, this article reviews the changing trend of commodity structure of trade between China and countries in the "Belt and Road Initiative" area, and analyzes the commodity structure and pattern, based on the revealed comparative advantage index (RCA), sensitive industry identification method, and k-medium value clustering. The results show that the commodity structure of China's export to these countries has improved, while import has been more centralized with increasing share of energy. Second, the main products that China exports to these countries are mechanical equipment and textiles and garments, while the main products that China imports are mostly energy, textiles and garments, and mechanical equipment. Third, sensitive industries involved in China's exports include clothing and shoes, nonmetallic minerals, transportation equipment and so on, and those involved in China's imports are mainly ores, energy, and some primary processed products. Fourth, at the provincial level, eastern, central, and some western provinces that do not share border with other countries, are mainly connected to Southeast Asia, West Asia, and Middle East, while western and northern border provinces are mainly dependent on trade with neighboring countries in the area, and have more ties with Central Asia, South Asia, and Mongolia-Russia. Most eastern provinces, central provinces, and several fast-growing western provinces are mainly exporting mechanical equipment, while most northwestern provinces are mainly exporting clothing. On the other hand, energy is the main product imported to Qinghai, Xinjiang, Liaoning, Heilongjiang, and other eastern provinces, while ores and metal products are main imported to most western provinces.

Key words: the Belt and Road Initiative, commodity structure, trade pattern, China